Sodium/Glucose Co-transporters, Structure and Function
Na+/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are responsible for the “secondary-active” transport of glucose and other substrates across cellular membranes. They concentrate glucose inside the cell using electrochemical energy from the transmembrane Na+ gradient, employing an alternating access cotransport mechanism. Their most important roles are to mediate the absorption of glucose in the intestine and its reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the kidney.
The general mechanism for active glucose cotransport through epithelial cells was first proposed by Robert Crane in the early 1960s. It described the secondary-active pumping of glucose across the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium using the Na+ gradient generated by the basolateral Na+/K+-...
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