Cadmium (Cd) is a soft, ductile, silver-white electropositive metal, which is widely distributed in the environment. Environmental contamination by Cd is due to human and natural activities. Food and drinking water are the main routes of exposure to Cd for nonsmoking general population. The absorption of Cd after dietary exposure ranges from 0.5% to 3.0% in majority of animal species, while in man a range of 3.0–8.0% has been reported. The metal accumulates mainly in the liver and kidney where it has multiple cytotoxic and metabolic effects. Cd bioavailability, retention, and consequent toxicity are influenced by several factors such as diet composition, chemical forms of Cd, nutritional status, among others.
Contamination of the environment by Cd may occur through anthropogenic and natural sources (WHO 1992). The main routes of Cd exposure from the environment are inhalation and ingestion. Although the...
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