Cadmium and Stress Response
Exposure to cadmium results in cellular stress and evokes responses that involve injurious signaling and protective reactions. The most typical examples are oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Oxidative stress represents an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the potential to detoxify ROS. The oxidative stress response comprises (1) generation of ROS and consequent modulation of cellular components including proteins, lipids, and DNA, leading to cellular activation or apoptosis and (2) induction of antioxidant systems that protect cells from ROS-mediated activation and cell injury. ER stress is defined as accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. It triggers an adaptive program, namely the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR alleviates ER stress by suppression of protein synthesis, facilitation of protein...