Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Scandium, Biological Effects

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_200024


The biological effects of scandium refer to the bioactivity, behavior, and toxicity of Scandium element or compounds in cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. In general, scandium is present in low abundance in soil and water bodies, and it is not an essential element for organisms. The bioavailability of scandium is very low, so it is considered as a metal of low toxicity. Nevertheless, the contents of scandium are detectable in a wide variety of tissues in many species including human beings. Several biochemical effects of Sc have been recognized for decades and widely utilized for the replacement of toxic heavy metals in technological applications. However, Sc is not entirely free of toxicity. Mechanisms of Sc toxicity may include substitution for essential metals, enzyme inhibition, elemental dyshomeostasis, and other indirect effects. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological effects of scandium.

Previous studies on the metabolism of scandium were initiated...

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical TechniquesInstitute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina