A lanthanoid element, the first element of the f-elements block, with the symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.115. Electron configuration [Xe]4f15d16s2. Cerium is composed of three stable (140Ce, 88.450%; 136Ce, 0.185%; 138Ce, 0.251%) isotopes and one radioactive (142Ce, 11.114%) isotope, discovered (Berzelius and Hisinge; Klaproth) in 1803 and isolated by Mosander. Cerium exhibits oxidation states III and IV; atomic radii: 182 pm, covalent radii: 205 pm, redox potential (acidic solution) Ce3+/Ce −2.34 V, Ce3+/Ce2+ −3.2 V; electronegativity (Pauling) 1.12. Ground electronic state of Ce3+ is 2F5/2 with S = 1/2, L = 3, J = 5/2 with λ = 640 cm−1. Most stable technogenic radionuclide 144Ce (half-life 284.9 days, Emax(β) = 2.98 MeV.) The most common compounds: CeO2 (soluble in acids in the presence of reduction agent), Ce(NO3)3·6H2O, CeCl3·6H2O, CeSO4·4H2O. Biologically, cerium is of low to moderate toxicity, can cause itching, skin lesions, and death (at animals...
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