Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Chromium and Glucose Tolerance Factor

  • John B. Vincent
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_19

Synonyms

Definition

As originally defined, glucose tolerance factor (GTF) is a material absent from Torula yeast that when fed to rats on a Torula yeast diet reverses apparent glucose intolerance in the rats. Early study on glucose tolerance factor equated the term with chromic ion. However, the term “glucose tolerance factor” was later used to refer to a material extracted and partially purified from brewer’s yeast. The original studies have been shown to be methodologically flawed, and material from brewer’s yeast has been shown to be an artifact. Given the considerable confusion over the name GTF and the history of GTF studies, the terms “glucose tolerance factor” and “GTF” should no longer be used use in chromium nutritional and biochemical research.

Initial Reports of a Glucose Tolerance Factor

The fields of Cr nutrition and Cr biochemistry had their beginnings in 1955 when Walter Mertz and Klaus Schwarz fed rats a semipurified Torulayeast–based...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Di Bona KR, Love S, Rhodes NR et al (2011) Chromium is not an essential trace element for mammals: effects of a “low-chromium” diet. J Biol Inorg Chem 16(3):381–390. doi:10.1007/s00775-010-0734-yCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Mertz W, Schwarz K (1955) Impaired intravenous glucose tolerance as an early sign of dietary necrotic liver degeneration. Arch Biochem Biophys 58:504–506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Mertz W, Toepfer EW, Rogionski EE et al (1974) Present knowledge on the role of chromium. Fed Proc 33:2275–2280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Rhodes NR, Konovalova T, Liang Q, Cassady CJ, Vincent JB (2009) Mass spectrometric and spectroscopic studies of the nutritional supplement chromium(III) nicotinate. Biol Trace Elem Res 130:114–130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Schwarz K, Mertz W (1959) Chromium(III) and the glucose tolerance factor. Arch Biochem Biophys 85:292–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Toepfer EW, Mertz W, Polansky MM et al (1977) Preparation of chromium-containing material of glucose tolerance factor activity from brewer’s yeast extracts and by synthesis. J Agric Food Chem 25:162–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Vincent JB (1994) Relationship between glucose tolerance factor and low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance. J Nutr 124:117–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Vincent JB (2001) The bioinorganic chemistry of chromium. Polyhedron 20:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Vincent JB (2010) Chromium: celebrating 50 years as an essential element? Dalton Trans 39:3787–3794CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Vincent JB, Stallings D (2007) Introduction: a history of chromium studies (1955–1995). In: Vincent J (ed) The nutritional biochemistry of chromium(III). Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryThe University of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA