Chromium and Insulin Signaling
Insulin signaling refers to the cascade of processes triggered by insulin binding with its receptor, and as a result, cellular glucose uptake and utilization can take place. It has been extensively documented that trivalent chromium (Cr3+) can improve insulin sensitivity by enhancing insulin signal transduction; however, the mechanisms of its action have not been fully understood. The contemporary theories explaining the possible mechanisms of Cr3+ action in insulin signaling are based on certain phenomena that include its role in the LMWCr, involvement in phosphorylation reactions, assisting insulin binding to its receptor, increasing number of insulin receptors, activation of Akt proteins, and interaction with cytokines and oxidation processes, as well as increasing cell membrane fluidity.
Insulin (INS) is a hormone with pleiotropic functions that influences gene...