Aluminum, Genes Involved in Novel Adaptive Resistance in Rhodotorula glutinis
Three genes probably related to cation homeostasis are involved in adaptive acquirement of novel heritable aluminum (Al) resistance in Rhodotorula glutinis IFO1125.
So far, no nutrient role is known for aluminum (Al), which has toxic effects not only on plants and microorganisms, but also on human beings. The strong toxicity of Al is caused by inorganic monomeric ion (Al3+, Al(OH)2+, and (Al(OH)2+), especially Al3+, which is maintained at low pH below 4.5, but at higher pH, it is gradually converted to harmless forms. In what follows, Al toxicity is associated with Al3+below pH 4.0. The acidification of soil causes the dissolution of Al salts from soils and even a micromolar range of cationic Al ions shows severe inhibition of plant growth. Resistant plant species exist and, in some, the lowering of toxicity is caused by complexation of Al with organic acids originating from the metabolic pathways. Since the...
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