Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Aluminum Speciation in Human Serum

  • Janez ŠčančarEmail author
  • Radmila Milačič
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_106



The role of trace elements and their impact on the environment and living organisms depend not only on their total concentration but also on chemical forms in which they are actually present. Individual chemical species of trace elements in different samples are quantitatively determined by speciation analysis.

A fundamental tool for speciation analysis of aluminum (Al) is the combination of separation technique coupled to element-specific detector. For the time being the most powerful hyphenation is coupling of liquid chromatography to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For identification of Al-binding ligands, mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques exhibit the greatest potential.


Al is the most abundant metal in the lithosphere, comprising 8% of the Earth’s crust. The sparingly soluble nature...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bantan Polak T, Milačič R, Mitrović B, Benedik M (2001) Speciation of low molecular weight Al complexes in serum of CAPD patients. J pharm Biomed Anal 26:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bantan T, Milačič R, Mitrović B, Pihlar B (1999) Investigation of low molecular weight Al complexes in human serum by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ETAAS and electrospray (ES)-MS-MS techniques. J Anal At Spectrom 14:1743–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Harrington CF, Clough R, Hansen HR, Hill SJ, Tyson JF (2010) Atomic spectrometry update. Elemental speciation. J Anal At Spectrom 25:1185–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hedge ML, Bharathi P, Suram A, Venugopal C, Jagannathan R, Poddar P, Srinivas P, Sambamurti K, Rao KJ, Ščančar J, Messon L, Zecca L, Zatta P (2009) Challenges associated with metal chelation therapy in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 17:457–468Google Scholar
  5. Kralj B, Ščančar J, Križaj I, Benedik M, Bukovec P, Milačič R (2004) Determination of high molecular mass Al species in serum and spent CAPD fluids of dialysis patients combining SEC and anion-exchange FPLC with ETAAS detection. J Anal At Spectrom 19:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Milačič R (2005) Speciation of aluminum in clinical aspects: (health & disease). In: Cornelis R (ed) Handbook of elemental speciation II: species in the environment, food, medicine & occupational health. Wiley, New York/Chichester, pp 27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Milačič R, Murko S, Ščančar J (2009) Problems and progresses in speciation of Al in human serum: an overview. J Inorg Biochem 103:1504–1513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Murko S, Milačič R, Kralj B, Ščančar J (2009) Convective interaction media monolithic chromatography with ICPMS and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS detection: a powerful tool for speciation of aluminum in human serum at normal concentration levels. Anal Chem 81:4929–4936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Murko S, Ščančar J, Milačič R (2011) Rapid fractionation of Al in human serum by the use of HiTrap desalting size exclusion column with ICP-MS detection. J Anal At Spectrom 26:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sanz-Medel A, Soldado Cabezuelo A, Milačič R, Bantan Polak T (2002) The chemical speciation of aluminium in human serum. Coord Chem Rev 228:373–383Google Scholar
  11. Wróbel K, Blanco González E, Sanz-Medel A (1995) Aluminium and silicon speciation in human serum by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography–electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and gel electrophoresis. Analyst 120:809–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Yokel RA (2004) Aluminum. In: Merian E, Anke M, Inhant M, Stoeppler M (eds) Elements and their compounds in the environment, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Veinheim, pp 635–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesJožef Stefan InstituteLjubljanaSlovenia