Hydrops fetalis is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the serous cavities and/or in the soft tissues of the fetus. It is classified as immune if there is an indication of a fetomaternal blood group incompatibility, otherwise classified as nonimmune. The incidence of nonimmune hydrops fetalis is estimated to be approximately 1 in 2,500 to 1 in 3,500 neonates.
Synonyms and Related Disorders
Hydrops fetalis syndrome; Immune hydrops; Nonimmune hydrops
Causes of immune hydrops (IH)
Rh-D disease (approximately 90% of immune hydrops)
Prior to 1960s, this is the most common cause (up to 80%) of all cases with hydrops fetalis. The incidence of rhesus isoimmunization has declined steadily because of the widespread use of anti-D gamma globulin. The majority of hydrops is now of the nonimmune type (Holzgreve et al. 1985).
Mother (Rh−), father (Rh+), and fetus (Rh+)
After sensitization, maternal Rh antibody (IgG anti-D) crosses the placenta and...
KeywordsGauche Disease Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Noonan Syndrome Maternal Infection Pulmonary Sequestration
- Hutchinson, A. A., Drew, J. H., Yu, V. Y., et al. (1982). Nonimmune hydrops fetalis: A review of 61 cases. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59, 347–352.Google Scholar
- Lo, Y. M. D., Hjelm, N. M., Fidler, C., et al. (1998). Prenatal diagnosis of fetal RhD status by molecular analysis of maternal plasma. The New England Journal of Medicine, 339, 17341738.Google Scholar
- Salzman, D. H., Frigoletto, F. D., Jr., Harlow, B. L., et al. (1989). Sonographic evaluation of hydrops fetalis. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 74, 106–111.Google Scholar
- Sosa, M. E. (1999). Nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 13, 33–44.Google Scholar