Coolant and Lubrication in Machining

  • Ramesh SinghEmail author
  • Vivek Bajpai
Reference work entry


This chapter is focused on coolant and lubrication in machining. The cutting fluids are known to aid the machining process by providing cooling action and lubrication. The functions, properties, classification, and guidelines for selection and application of the cutting fluids have been discussed in detail in this chapter. One of the key aspects of machining is the tribology of the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interfaces where the contact conditions are severe and the temperatures are very high. The contact stresses and the temperature estimates at these interfaces have been presented which could help in selecting an effective cooling/lubrication strategy during metal cutting. The recent advances in field of cutting fluid application in machining, such as dry machining, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and cryogenic machining, have also been covered.


Material Removal Rate Heat Pipe Tool Life Chip Formation Minimum Quantity Lubrication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adler DP, Hii WW-S, Michalek DJ, Sutherland JW (2006) Examining the role of cutting fluids in machining and efforts to address associated Environmental/Health Concerns. Machining Science and technology, 10(1), 23-58Google Scholar
  2. American National Standards Institute, American National Standard Technical Report (1997) Mist control considerations for the design, installation, and use of machine tools using metalworking fluids. ANSI, New York, B11 Ventilation Subcommittee, ANSI B-11TR 2–1997Google Scholar
  3. Aronson RB (2001) Fluid management basics. Manuf Eng 126(6):90–98Google Scholar
  4. ASME (1952) Manual on cutting of metals, 2nd edn. ASME, New York (Part III Chap 1)Google Scholar
  5. Astakhov VP (2006) Tribology of metal cutting, 1st edn. Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhattacharya A (2000) Metal cutting theory and practice. New Central Book Agency, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandth RH (1994) Filtration systems of metalworking fluids. In: Beyers JP (ed) Metal working fluids. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 273–303Google Scholar
  8. Cao T, Sutherland J (2002) Investigation of thread tapping load characteristics through mechanistics modeling and experimentation. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 42:1527–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cassin C, Boothroyd G (1965) Lubrication action of cutting fluids. J Mech Eng Sci 7(1):67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiou RY, Chen JSJ, Lu L, North MT (2003) The effect of embedded heat pipe in a cutting tool on temperature and wear. In: Proceedings of the ASME international mechanical engineering congress and exposition. ASME, Washington DC, 15–21 Nov 2003Google Scholar
  11. Cook NH (1966) Manufacturing analysis. Addison-Wesley, Reading (Chap 3)Google Scholar
  12. Crafoord R, Kaminski J, Lagerberg S, Ljungkrona O, Wretland A (1999) Chip control in tube turning using high pressure water – jet. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B 213:761–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Chiffre L (1980) Mechanical testing and selection of cutting fluids. Lubr Eng 36:29–33Google Scholar
  14. Drozda TJ, Wick C (eds) (1983) Tool and manufacturing engineers handbook, vol I, 4th edn, Machining. SME, Dearborn, pp 4.1–4.34Google Scholar
  15. Entelis SG, Berlinder EM (1986) Cooling- lubricating media for metal cutting. Machinostrienie, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. Faghri A (1995) Heat pipe science and technology. Taylor and Francis, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  17. Foltz GJ (2003) Cooling fluids: forgotten key to quality. Manuf Eng 130(1):65–69Google Scholar
  18. Gorczyca FY (1987) Application of metal cutting theory. Industrial Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Haan D, Batzer S, Olson W, Sutherland J (1997) An experimental study of cutting fluid effects in drilling. J Mater Process Technol 71:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoff M (2000) Critical coolant questions. Manuf Eng 124(5):142–148Google Scholar
  21. Hong SY, Ding Y, Ekkens G (1999) Improving low carbon steel chip breakability by cryogenic chip cooling. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 39:1065–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khan MMA, Mithu MAH (2009) Effects of minimum quantity lubrication on turning AISI 9310 alloy steel using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. J Mater Process Technol 209:5573–5583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krahenbuhl U (2005) Vegetable oil-based coolants improve cutting performance.
  24. Likens C, Venner A (2000) Keep good coolant from going bad. Am Machinist 144:72–75Google Scholar
  25. Machinability Data Center (1980) Machining data handbook, 3rd edn. Machinability Data Center, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  26. Malkin S (1989) Grinding technology. SME, Dearborn, pp 215–216Google Scholar
  27. Mariani G (1990) The selection and use of semi –synthetic coolants, SME paper MF90–321, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  28. Mazurkiewicz M, Kubala Z, Chow J (1989) Metal machining with high pressure water –jet cooling assistance – a new possibility. ASME J Eng Ind 111:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Merchant ME (1945) Mechanics of the metal cutting process. I. Orthogonal cutting and a type 2 chip. J Appl Phys 16:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pušavec F, Stoić A, Kopač J (2009) The role of cryogenics in machining processes. Tech Gaz 16(4):3–10Google Scholar
  31. Rebinder PA (1979) Surface effects in dispersion systems. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  32. Reznikov AN, Reznikov LA (1990) Thermal process in machining systems. Machinostrienie, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. Richter A (2003) Recovery process-options and considerations for processing and removing metal chips. Cut Tool Eng 55:7Google Scholar
  34. Schallbroch H, Schaumann H, Wallichs R (1938) Testing for machinability by measuring cutting temperatures and tool wear, Vortrage der Houptversammlung Deutsche Gessellschaft fur MetallkundeVDI Verlag. VDI VerlagGoogle Scholar
  35. Shaw MC (1984) Metal cutting principles, 1st edn. Oxford Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  36. Stäbler D, Schönwald M, Sefrin H, Wolf M (2003) Hazard evaluation at the dry tooling of metallic materials, Final project report of the Süddeutsche Metall BerufsgenossenschaftGoogle Scholar
  37. Stephenson DA, Agapiou JS (2010) Metal cutting theory and practice, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  38. Trent EM, Wright PK (2000) Metal cutting. Butter worth-Heinemann, BostonGoogle Scholar
  39. Urandoff H, McKinley RJ (2003) Why do coolants fail? Manuf Eng 130(5):122–130Google Scholar
  40. Wang XY, Rajurkar KP (2000) Cryogenic machining of hard to cut materials. Wear 239:168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zorev NN (1966) Metal cutting mechanics. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  42. Zurechi Z, Arroutt GH, Zhang X (1999) Dry machining of metals with liquid nitrogen, SME paper MR 99-252, pp 1–12Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Machine Tools Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayPowai, MumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations