Powder Processing of Bulk Components in Manufacturing

  • Andrew RuysEmail author
  • Oana Gingu
  • Gabriela Sima
  • Saeed Maleksaeedi
Reference work entry


This chapter provides an overview of powder-forming methods for ceramics and metals. Powder forming is distinct from traditional melt-forming methods in that it involves forming a component from powder and densifying it without melting, via solid state sintering. Sintering typically occurs at around 80 % of the melting point. The primary benefits of powder forming are as follows: (a) reduced forming temperature (reduced energy cost), (b) capability for engineered porosity, (c) elimination of mold component reactions caused by melt forming, and (d) suitability for mass production of small metal components and ceramics of all shapes and sizes. Almost all ceramics are manufactured by powder forming. Most metals are formed by melt casting; however, powder metallurgy has grown into a large industry. This overview begins with a review of powder characterization and powder manufacturing techniques. Powder-forming techniques are then reviewed including the two main dry-forming methods (die pressing, cold isostatic pressing) and a range of wet-forming techniques including extrusion, plastic forming, slipcasting, tapecasting, powder injection molding, direct coagulation casting, gelcasting, and thixotropic casting. The overview then discusses powder densification techniques including pressureless sintering, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, microwave sintering, two-step sintering, hot-pressing, hot isostatic pressing, spark plasma sintering, and sinter forging. Future trends discussed include additive manufacturing (powder 3D printing), functionally graded materials, and hydrostatic shock forming.


Powder Metallurgy Injection Molding Spark Plasma Sinter Additive Manufacturing Ceramic Powder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Ruys
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oana Gingu
    • 2
  • Gabriela Sima
    • 3
  • Saeed Maleksaeedi
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic EngineeringSydney UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.University of CraiovaDrobeta Turnu SeverinRomania
  3. 3.Faculty of Engineering and Management of Technological Systems (I.M.S.T.)University of CraiovaMehedintiRomania
  4. 4.Singapore Institute of Manufacturing TechnologySingaporeSingapore

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