Flourished (India), circa950–1100
Āryabhaṭa II, the Hindu astronomer, is best known for his work entitled Mahāsiddhānta or Āryasiddhānta. It has been established indirectly that he lived and worked around the tenth century. In order not to confuse him with the well-known astronomer Āryabhaṭa, who lived in the fifth century, he is known as Āryabhaṭa II or the Younger.
The Mahāsiddhānta or Āryasiddhānta is an astronomical compendium based on the orthodox tradition of Smṛtis (passages from Vedic literature). The treatise written in Sanskrit consists of 18 chapters and 625 ślokas (verses). The first 12 chapters deal with mathematical astronomy. Detailed derivations are presented on topics such as the mean and true longitudes of the planets, eclipses of the Sun and the Moon, the projections of eclipses, the lunar crescent, and the heliacal rising and settings of planets, including some calculations on conjunctions of planets as well as planets with...
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