Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Hockey, Virginia Trimble, Thomas R. Williams, Katherine Bracher, Richard A. Jarrell, Jordan D. MarchéII, JoAnn Palmeri, Daniel W. E. Green

John of Gmunden

Reference work entry

Alternate Name

 Krafft, Johann

BornGmunden am Traunsee, (Austria), 13801384

DiedVienna, (Austria), 23 February 1442

John of Gmunden, best known for his treatises on astronomical instruments such as the astrolabe and equatorium, made Vienna an important center of astronomy in Europe.

John, the son of a tailor in Gmunden, received his bachelor’s degree at Vienna University in 1402, and his master’s in 1406. His early university lectures (up to 1416) dealt mostly with philosophy and theology. Later (up to 1425), he lectured exclusively on mathematics and astronomy, and he became the first professor of these branches at Vienna University. John was twice dean of the university, and he gained many honors there.

In 1425 John became canon of Saint Stephan’s cathedral in Vienna, but his university career continued with lectures on astronomy. He also wrote astronomical tables and treatises on astronomical instruments such as the astrolabe (his version of the astrolabe is based on the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Selected References

  1. Anon. (1973). Beiträge zur Kopernikusforschung. Katalog des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums, no. 86. Linz.Google Scholar
  2. Anon. (1981). Die Kuenringen: Das Werden des Landes Niederösterreich. Katalog des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums, no. 110. Vienna.Google Scholar
  3. Chlench, Katrin (2007). Johannes von Gmunden deutsch. Der Wiener Codex 3055. Studia Medievalia Septentrionalia 13. Wien: Fassbaender.Google Scholar
  4. Ferrari d’Occhieppo, Konradin, and Uiblein Paul (eds.) (1973). “Der ‘Tractatus Cylindri’ des Johannes von Gmunden.” In Beiträge zur Kopernikusforschung. Katalog des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums, no. 86. Linz.Google Scholar
  5. Grössing, Helmuth (1983). Humanistische Naturwissenschaft: Zur Geschichte der Wiener mathematischen Schulen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts. Saecula Spiritalia, Vol. 8. Baden-Baden: V. Koerner.Google Scholar
  6. — (1990). “Johannes von Gmunden—Georg von Peuerbach - Johannes Regiomontanus.” In Mensch und Kosmos, edited by Wilfried Seipel, pp. 71–77. Linz: Oö. Landesausstellung.Google Scholar
  7. — (1993). “Das Itinerar-Weltbild.” In Focus Behaim Globus, edited by Gerhard Bott and Johannes Willers, pp. 115–118. Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum.Google Scholar
  8. Hadravová, Alena and Petr Hadrava … (eds.) (2001). Kristan z Prachatic: Stavba… a uzití astrolábu 89 (Cristannus de Prachaticz: Composition and use of 90 the astrolabe), Prague: Filosofia.Google Scholar
  9. Hadravová, Alena and Petr Hadrava (2008). Prachaticz, Cristannus de. In New Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 6, pp. 153–154. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  10. Hamann, Günther and Helmuth Grössing (1988). Der Weg der Naturwissenschaft von Johannes von Gmunden zu Johannes Kepler. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  11. Johannes de Gmunden (1971). Der Traktat De sinibus, chordis et arcubus von Johannes von Gmunden, edited by H. L. L. Busard. Vienna: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Klug, Rudolf (1943). Johannes von Gmunden, der Begründer der Himmelskunde auf deutschen Boden. Sitzungsberichte, Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Vol. 222. Vienna.Google Scholar
  13. Mundy, John (1943). “John of Gmunden.” Isis 34: 196–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Porres, Beatriz and José Chabás (2001). “John of Murs’s Tabulae Permanentes for Finding True Syzygies.” Journal for the History of Astronomy 32: 63–72.ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Simek, Rudolf and Katrin Chlench (eds.) (2006). Johannes von Gmunden (ca. 1384-1442). Astronom und Mathematiker. Studia Medievalia Septentrionalia 12. Wien: Fassbaender.Google Scholar
  16. Simek, Rudolf and Manuela Klein (eds). (2012). Johannes von Gmunden - zwischen Astronomie und Astrologie. Studia Medievalia Septentrionalia 22. Wien: Fassbaender.Google Scholar
  17. Uiblein, Paul (May 1974). “Johannes von Gmunden, der Begründer der Wiener Mathematikerschule.” Beiträge zur Wiener Diözesangeschichte, no. 5: 17–19.Google Scholar
  18. Vogel, Kurt (1973). “John of Gmunden.” In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles Coulston Gillispie. Vol. 7, pp. 117–122. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  19. Zinner, Ernst (1990). Regiomontanus: His Life and Work, translated by Ezra Brown. Amsterdam: North-Holland.MATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for the History of Sciences and Humanities, ICH, Academy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Astronomical InstituteAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicOndřejovCzech Republic