Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Hockey, Virginia Trimble, Thomas R. Williams, Katherine Bracher, Richard A. Jarrell, Jordan D. MarchéII, JoAnn Palmeri, Daniel W. E. Green

Jawharī: al-ҁAbbās ibn Saҁīd al-Jawharī

  • Marvin Bolt
Reference work entry

FlourishedBaghdad, (Iraq), 830

Jawharī made solar, lunar, and planetary observations in Baghdad from 829 to 830, the data of which appeared in the astronomical handbook with tables that is sometimes referred to as Kitāb al-Zīj. Most likely, this is a reference to the Mumtaḥan zīj, which was apparently jointly authored by several astronomers at the court of the ҁAbbāsid caliph  Ma'mūn. Charged by the caliph with the task of providing appropriate instruments for the year-long series of astronomical observations at Damascus in 832–833, Jawharī selected Khālid ibn ҁ Abd al-Malik al-Marwarrūdhī to construct them. Jawharī also contributed to the accuracy of the calculated solar and lunar data; these results also appeared in the Mumtaḥan zīj. His astronomical writings were later consulted by  Shams al-Dīn al- Samarqandī, a contemporary of  Naīr al-Dīn al- ūsī. In his work on the parallels postulate of Euclid, Ṭūsī noted the failure of Jawharī to prove the parallels postulate in the...

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Selected References

  1. De Young, Gregg (1997). “Al-Jawharī’s additions to Book V of Euclid’s Elements.” Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 11: 153–178.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Kennedy, E. S. (1956). “A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables.” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s., 46, pt. 2: 121–177, esp. 128, 136. (Reprint, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1989. An important list, with excellent introduction to the topic of zījes.)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Rosenfeld, B. A. and Ekmeleddin Ihsanoğlu (2003). Mathematicians, Astronomers, and Other Scholars of Islamic Civilization and Their Works (7th-19th c.). Istanbul: IRCICA, pp. 26–27.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Sabra, A. I. (1973). “Al-Jawharī.” In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles Coulston Gillispie. Vol. 7, pp. 79–80. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  5. Sayılı, Aydın (1960). The Observatory in Islam. Ankara: Turkish Historical Society. (See chap. 2, “Al Mamûn’s Observatory Building Activity,” pp. 50–87, for a valuable discussion, beginning with a thorough analysis of early Islamic astronomical observations.)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Adler PlanetariumChicagoUSA