The philosopher of science Thomas S. Kuhn introduced the notion “paradigm” to describe the consensus within a scientific community regarding both past exemplary achievements and future expectations of how to model research on these achievements (Kuhn 1970). Kuhn used the term paradigm both to denote concrete exemplary problems and problem solutions which have previously been achieved and to denote a more loose or open-ended structure that marks out further problems to solve and the means by which to solve them. Often, this latter use of the term has been carried further to denote the entire global set of commitments shared by the members of the scientific community. To better specify the elements of consensus within a normal science tradition, Kuhn later introduced the notion “disciplinary matrix.” A disciplinary matrix contains the symbolic generalizations, that is, the scientific laws in their most fundamental forms, beliefs about which objects and phenomena exist in the...
- Kuhn TS (1970) The structure of scientific revolutions, 2nd edn. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar