Encyclopedia of Systems Biology

2013 Edition
| Editors: Werner Dubitzky, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Kwang-Hyun Cho, Hiroki Yokota

Proteasome Inhibition, Parkinson’s Disease

  • Rajeswara Babu Mythri
  • Shireen Vali
  • M. M. Srinivas Bharath
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9863-7_653

Definition

Proteasomes are large intracellular protein complexes whose main function is to degrade misfolded or damaged proteins by proteolysis. Consequently, proteasomes assist cells in regulating the concentration of particular proteins and degrade unwanted proteins via its inherent protease activity. Eukaryotic proteasome has both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. The most common form of the proteasome is the 26S proteasome, which contains one 20S core particle structure. The core is hollow and provides an enclosed cavity in which proteins are degraded. Initially, cellular proteins targeted for degradation are tagged with several molecules of a small protein marker called ubiquitin thus generating a polyubiquitin chain through a three-step enzymatic cascade. This polyubiquitin chain is bound by the proteasome, allowing it to degrade the tagged protein. Upon recruitment to the proteasome, the substrates must be unfolded to pass through the narrow barrel of the proteasome where...

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References

  1. Malkus KA, Tsika E, Ischiropoulos H (2009) Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in PD: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle. Molecular Neurodegeneration 4:24–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ross CA, Pickart CM (2004) The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Trends Cell Biol 14:703–711PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajeswara Babu Mythri
    • 1
  • Shireen Vali
    • 2
  • M. M. Srinivas Bharath
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurochemistryNational Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS)BangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Cell Works Group Inc.BangaloreIndia