Parkinson’s Disease, MPTP
Although several genetic mutations have been reported in PD, >90% of the reported cases are sporadic and influenced by environmental factors. These include exposure to toxins, metals, pesticides, herbicides, head trauma, and viral infections. Proximity of industrial areas, consumption of well water, and exposure to quarries and printing facilities are considered as environmental risk factors in PD. Industrial workers such as welders and miners are at higher risk of developing PD at an early age due to chronic exposure to heavy metal dust. It has been demonstrated that exposure to pesticides leads to its accumulation in the brain.
In 2000, Greenamyre’s group showed that exposure to a common chemical rotenone, used as a pesticide/insecticide could mimic the anatomical, neurochemical, behavioral, and neuropathological features of PD (Betarbet et al. 2000). Chronic systemic exposure to rotenone selectively inhibits CI, causing selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal system...