Encyclopedia of Systems Biology

2013 Edition
| Editors: Werner Dubitzky, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Kwang-Hyun Cho, Hiroki Yokota

Parkinson’s Disease, MPTP

  • Rajeswara Babu Mythri
  • Shireen Vali
  • M. M. Srinivas Bharath
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9863-7_649


Although several genetic mutations have been reported in PD, >90% of the reported cases are sporadic and influenced by environmental factors. These include exposure to toxins, metals, pesticides, herbicides, head trauma, and viral infections. Proximity of industrial areas, consumption of well water, and exposure to quarries and printing facilities are considered as environmental risk factors in PD. Industrial workers such as welders and miners are at higher risk of developing PD at an early age due to chronic exposure to heavy metal dust. It has been demonstrated that exposure to pesticides leads to its accumulation in the brain.

In 2000, Greenamyre’s group showed that exposure to a common chemical rotenone, used as a pesticide/insecticide could mimic the anatomical, neurochemical, behavioral, and neuropathological features of PD (Betarbet et al. 2000). Chronic systemic exposure to rotenone selectively inhibits CI, causing selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal system...

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  1. Betarbet R, Sherer TB, MacKenzie G, Garcia-Osuna M, Panov AV, Greenamyre JT (2000) Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of PD. Nat Neurosci 3:1301–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Langston JW, Ballard P, Tetrud JW, Irwin I (1983) Chronic Parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine-analog synthesis. Science 219:979–980PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajeswara Babu Mythri
    • 1
  • Shireen Vali
    • 2
  • M. M. Srinivas Bharath
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurochemistryNational Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS)BangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Cell Works Group Inc.BangaloreIndia