Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Systems Biology

pp 2191-2212


  • Walter SchubertAffiliated withMolecular Pattern Recognition Research (MPRR) Group, Otto-von-Guericke University MagdeburgChinese Academy of Science and Max Planck Society (CAS-MPG) Partner Institute for Computational Biology (PICB)Human Toponome Project, ToposNomos Ltd Email author 


Toponomics is a discipline in systems biology, molecular cell biology, and histology concerning the study of the toponome of organisms. The toponome is the spatial network code of proteins and other biomolecules in morphologically intact cells and tissues. The term “toponome” is derived from the ancient Greek nouns “topos” (τóπoς; place, position) and “nomos” (νóμoς; law), addressing the fact that the network of biomolecules in cells follows topological rules enabling coordinated actions (Schubert 2003). This spatial organization can be described by a three symbol code (Schubert 2003, 2007a; Schubert et al. 2006). The core technology decoding the toponome is the dimension-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy TIS.


Cellular functionalities comprise at least four organizational levels: genome, transcriptome, proteome, and toponome. The toponome (Schubert 2003) is defined as the spatial network code of proteins and other biomolecules i ...

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