Encyclopedia of Systems Biology

2013 Edition
| Editors: Werner Dubitzky, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Kwang-Hyun Cho, Hiroki Yokota

Post-Translational Modifications, Histone

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9863-7_1490

Synonyms

Definition

Post-transcriptional modifications of histones serve as biological signals that regulate various nuclear events (Allis et al. 2006). Most post-translational modifications (PTMs) are found in the tail regions of histones, which are considered to be intrinsically disordered regions. Some PTMs are also found in the structured region of histone proteins. Various types of histone PTMs have been identified, namely, acetylation (for Lys), methylation (mono-, di-, and tri-methylation for Lys and mono- and di-methylation for Arg), phosphorylation (for Ser and Thr), ubiquitination (for Lys), SUMOylation (for Lys), ADP ribosylation (for Glu), deimination (for Arg), biotinylation (for Lys), and proline isomerization (for Pro). These modifications are enzymatically introduced; many histone-modification enzymes have been identified since the first discovery of histone acetyltransferase in 1996. In order to explain the...

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References

  1. Allis CD, Jenuwein T, Reinberg D, Caparros M-L (2006) Epigenetics, 1st edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomedicinal Information Research Centre (BIRC)National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Structure-guided Drug Development Project, JBIC Research InstituteJapan Biological Informatics ConsortiumTokyoJapan