Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Ming Ronnier Luo

CIE Special Metamerism Index: Change in Observer

  • Abhijit Sarkar
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8071-7_322

Synonyms

Definition

Special Metamerism Index: Change in Observer refers to a method for evaluating the average of and the range of color mismatches for metameric color pairs when test observers with normal color vision are substituted for a reference observer (i.e., a CIE standard colorimetric observer). This method was proposed in 1989 by the CIE Technical Committee 1-07 [1]. The method, principally based on the works of Nayatani et al. [2] and Takahama et al. [3], was intended to evaluate both the average values and the range of color mismatches.

Overview

Two color stimuli with different spectral characteristics within the visible spectral range can have identical tristimulus values for a given illuminant and the reference observer (standard colorimetric observer). These stimuli are said to be metameric. Such metameric color match breaks down on changing the illuminant (illuminant metamerism) or the observer (observer metamerism). This is depicted in...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    CIE Publication 80: Special metamerism index: Change in observer. Central Bureau of the CIE, Vienna (1989)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nayatani, Y., Takahama, K., Sobagaki, H.: A proposal of new standard deviate observers. Color Res. Appl. 8(1), 47–56 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Takahama, K., Sobagaki, H., Nayatani, Y.: Prediction of observer variation in estimating colorimetric values. Color Res. Appl. 10(2), 106–117 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nimeroff, I., Rosenblatt, J.R., Dannemiller, M.C.: Variability of spectral tristimulus values. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 52, 685–691 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wyszecki, G., Stiles, W.: Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York (1982)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stiles, W., Burch, J.: NPL colour-matching investigation: final report (1958). J. Mod. Opt. 6, 1–26 (1959)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    CIE Publication 15-2: Colorimetry, 2nd ed. Central Bureau of the CIE, Vienna (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allen, E.: An index of metamerism for observer differences. In: Proceedings of the 1st AIC Congress, Color 69, Musterschmidt, Göttingen, 771–784 (1970)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nayatani, Y., Hashimoto, K., Takahama, K., Sobagaki, H.: Comparison of methods for assessing observer metamerism. Color Res. Appl. 10, 147–155 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ohta, N.: Formulation of a standard deviate observer by a nonlinear optimization technique. Color Res. Appl 10, 156–164 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    North, A., Fairchild, M.: Measuring color-matching functions. Part II. New data for assessing observer metamerism. Color Res. Appl. 18, 163–170 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alfvin, R., Fairchild, M.: Observer variability in metameric color matches using color reproduction media. Color Res. Appl. 22, 174–188 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oicherman, B., Luo, M., Tarrant, A., Robertson, A.: The uncertainty of colour-matching data. In Proceedings of IS&T/SID 13th Color Imaging Conference, 326–332 (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    CIE Technical Report: Fundamental Chromaticity Diagram with Physiological Axes – Part I. (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sarkar, A., Blondé, L., Le Callet, P., Autrusseau, F., Stauder, J., Morvan, P.: Toward reducing observer metamerism in industrial applications: colorimetric observer categories and observer classification. In: Proceedings of the 18th Color and Imaging Conference, San Antonio (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SurfaceMicrosoft CorporationRedmondUSA