Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Ming Ronnier Luo


  • Galina V. Paramei
  • David L. Bimler
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8071-7_284



Protanopia [from the Greek protos (first)  +  an (not)  +  opia(a visual condition)] is a congenital form of severe color deficiency (dichromacy) affecting the red-green opponent color system. Protanopes do not distinguish between colors along a specific direction (protanopic confusion lines) in color space and are able to match all colors using two primaries (unlike trichromats who require three primaries). Protanopia is linked to the X-chromosome and arises from loss or alteration of the gene encoding the opsin of the long-wavelength (L-) photopigment; this malstructure results in the absence of functioning L-cones in the retina. Protanopia follows a recessive pedigree pattern, with incidence of ca. 1 % in the Caucasian male population. It is distinct from protanomaly in which some degree of...

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLiverpool Hope UniversityLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.School of PsychologyMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand