International Efforts to Combat Global Warming

  • Karen Pittel
  • Dirk Rübbelke
  • Martin Altemeyer-Bartscher
Reference work entry


This chapter sheds some light on the international efforts to curb the global warming threat. The dominant climate agreement to date is the Kyoto Protocol, although competing – or allegedly complement – international climate protection schemes like the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate also exist. After describing the main features of these schemes and their failure to establish an efficient global climate protection regime, the disincentives for countries to commit to efficient climate protection efforts in an international agreement are elaborated on. The negotiation situation faced by national governments is depicted in game theoretic settings and private ancillary benefits of climate policy are identified to raise the likelihood for countries joining an international agreement. Yet, it remains quite disputable to which extent ancillary benefits can be an impetus for more action in international climate policy. Finally, after dedicating a large part of the chapter to agreements that, like the Kyoto Protocol, stipulate abatement quantities, alternative schemes are presented which were coined “price ducks” since they influence the effective prices of climate protection. By manipulating prices, e.g., via an international carbon tax, incentives are generated for producing higher climate protection levels. Recently, so-called matching schemes influencing effective prices of climate protection raised much attention in the scientific literature. Such schemes may attenuate free- or easy-rider incentives in international climate policy and may even induce a globally efficient climate protection level.


Clean Development Mechanism Climate Policy Kyoto Protocol Emission Trading Scheme Clean Development Mechanism Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Pittel
    • 1
  • Dirk Rübbelke
    • 2
    • 3
  • Martin Altemeyer-Bartscher
    • 4
  1. 1.Ifo Institute for Economic Research and University of MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3)BilbaoSpain
  3. 3.IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for ScienceBilbaoSpain
  4. 4.Department of EconomicsChemnitz University of TechnologyChemnitzGermany

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