Complex Systems in Finance and Econometrics

2011 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers (Editor-in-Chief)

System Dynamics in the Evolution of the Systems Approach

  • Markus Schwaninger
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7701-4_41

Article Outline

Glossary

Definition of the Subject

Introduction

Emergence of the Systems Approach

Common Grounds and Differences

The Variety of Systems Methodologies

System Dynamics – Its Features, Strengths and Limitations

Actual and Potential Relationships

Outlook

Appendix

Bibliography

Keywords

System Movement System Methodology Soft System Methodology General System Theory Viable System Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Ackoff RL (1981) Creating the Corporate Future. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersen DF, Richardson GP (1997) Scripts for Group Model Building. Syst Dyn Rev 13(2):107–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashby WR (1956) An Introduction to Cybernetics. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barlas Y (1996) Formal aspects of model validity and validation in system dynamics. Syst Dyn Rev 12(3):183–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barlas Y, Carpenter S (1990) Philosophical roots of model validity: Two paradigms. Syst Dyn Rev 6(2):148–166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beer S (1959) Cybernetics and Management. English Universities Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beer S (1994) Towards the Cybernetic Factory. In: Harnden R, Leonard A (eds) How Many Grapes Went into the Wine. Stafford Beer on the Art and Science of Holistic Management. Wiley, Chichester, pp 163–225 (reprint, originally published in 1962)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beer S (1966) Decision and Control. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beer S (1979) The Heart of Enterprise. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beer S (1981) Brain of the Firm, 2nd edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brocklesby J (1993) Methodological complementarism or separate paradigm development – Examining the options for enhanced operational research. Aust J Manag 18(2):133–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burrell G, Morgan G (1979) Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis. Hants, GowerGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Checkland PB (1981) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Checkland PB, Poulter J (2006) Learning for Action: A Short Definitive Account of Soft Systems Methodology, and its Use Practitioners, Teachers and Students. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Churchman CW (1968) Challenge to Reason. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Churchman CW (1968) The Systems Approach. Delacorte Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Churchman CW (1979) The Systems Approach and its Enemies. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (2002) published under: http://www.eolss.net/
  19. 19.
    Flood RL, Jackson MC (1991) Creative Problem Solving. Total Systems Intervention. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Forrester JW (1961) Industrial Dynamics. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Forrester JW (1968) Principles of Systems. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Forrester JW (1969) Urban Dynamics. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Forrester JW (1971) World Dynamics. Pegasus Communications, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Forrester JW (1993) System Dynamics and the Lessons of 35 Years. In: DeGreene KB (ed) Systems-Based Approach to Policy Making. Kluwer, Boston Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Forrester JW (1993) System Dynamics as an Organizing Framework for Pre-college Education. Syst Dyn Rev 9(2):183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Forrester JW (1997) System Dynamics and K-12 Teachers. A Lecture at the University of Virginia School of Education, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. System Dynamics Group Paper D-4665–4Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    François C (2004) International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics, 2nd edn. Saur, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gharajedaghi J (1999) Systems Thinking. Managing Chaos and Complexity. Butterworth-Heinemann, BostonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harnden RJ (1989) Technology for Enabling: The Implications for Management Science of a Hermeneutics of Distinction. The University of Aston, BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jackson MC (1991) Systems Methodology for the Management Sciences. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jackson MC (2000) Systems Approaches to Management. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kauffman SA (1993) The Origins of Order. Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klir GJ (1969) An Approach to General Systems Theory. Nostrand, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lane DC (1994) Modeling as Learning: A Consultancy Methodology for Enhancing Learning in Management in Management Teams. In: Morecroft J, Sterman JD (eds) Modeling for Learning Organizations. Productivity Press, Portland, pp 205–240Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lane DC (1994) With a little help from our friends: How system dynamics and soft OR can learn from each other. Syst Dyn Rev 10(2–3):101–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lane DC (2006) IFORS' Operational Research Hall of Fame. Jay Wright Forrester. Int Trans Oper Res 13:483–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lane DC, Oliva R (1998) The Greater Whole: towards a synthesis of system dynamics and soft system methodology. Eur J Oper Res 107(1):214–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    La Roche U, Simon M (2000) Geschäftsprozesse simulieren: flexibel und zielorientiert führen mit Fliessmodellen. Orell Füssli, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    McCulloch WS (1965) Embodiments of Mind. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Meadows DH (1980) The Unavoidable A Priori. In: Randers J (ed) Elements of the System Dynamics Method. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 23–57Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Meadows DH, Meadows DL, Randers J, Behrens III WW (1972) Limits to Growth. Universe Books, New York Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mesarovic MD, Takahara Y (1985) Abstract Systems Theory. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Midgley G (2000) Systemic Intervention. Philosophy, Methodology, and Practice. Kluwer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Miller JG (1978) Living Systems. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mingers J (1997) Multi-paradigm Multimethodology. In: Mingers J, Gill A (eds) Multimethodology. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Morecroft J (2007) Strategic Modelling and Business Dynamics: a Feedback Systems Approach. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Odum HT, Odum EC (2000) Modeling for all Scales: An Introduction to System Simulation. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pask G (1961) An Approach to Cybernetics. Hutchinson, London Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pichler F (1975) Mathematische Systemtheorie. de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rapoport A (1953) Operational philosophy: Integrating Knowledge and Action. Harper, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rapoport A (1986) General System Theory. Essential Concepts and Applications Abacus Press, Turnbridge WellsGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Richardson GP (1999) Feedback Thought in Social Science and Systems Theory. Pegasus Communications, Waltham (Originally published in 1991)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Richmond B (1997) The “Thinking” in systems thinking: How can we make it easier to master? Syst Think 8(2):1–5Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sabelli H (2005) Bios: a Study of Creation. World Scientific, HackensackCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schwaninger M (1997) Integrative systems methodology: Heuristic for requisite variety. Int Trans Oper Res 4(4):109–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schwaninger M (2004) Methodologies in conflict: Achieving synergies between system dynamics and organizational cybernetics. Syst Res Behav Sci 21(4):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schwaninger M (2006) Theories of viability. A comparison. Syst Res Behav Sci 23:337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schwaninger M, Groesser S (2008) System dynamics as model-based theory building. Syst Res Behav Sci 25:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schwaninger M, Groesser S (2009) Model Validation: The Quest for Quality in System Dynamics Modeling. Encyclopaedia of Complexity and Systems Science. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schwaninger M, Janovjak M, Ambroz K (2006) Second‐order intervention: Enhancing organizational competence and performance. Syst Res Behav Sci 23:529–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schwaninger M, Pérez Ríos J (2008) System dynamics and cybernetics: A synergetic pair. Syst Dyn Rev 24(2):145–174Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Senge PM (1990) The Fifth Discipline. The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shapiro M, Mandel T, Schwaninger M et al (1996) The Primer Toolbox. International Society for the Systems Sciences, http://www.isss.org/primer/toolbox.htm
  64. 64.
    Simon HA (1969) The Sciences of the Artificial. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sterman JD (1994) Learning in and about complex systems. Syst Dyn Rev 10(2–3):291–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sterman JD (2000) Business Dynamics. Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World. Irwin/McGraw-Hill, BostonGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ulrich W (1983) Critical Heuristics of Social Planning. Haupt, BernGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ulrich W (1996) A Primer to Critical Systems Heuristics for Action Researchers. The Centre of Systems Studies, University of Hull, HullGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vennix JAM (1996) Group Model Building. Facilitating Team Learning Using System Dynamics. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Vester F, Von Hesler A (1980) Sensitivitätsmodell. Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Untermain, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Von Bertalanffy L (1949) Zu einer allgemeinen Systemlehre. Bl Dtsch Philos 18(3/4) (Excerpts: in Biol Gen 19(1):114–129 and in General System Theory, 1968, Chapter III)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Von Bertalanffy L (1950) An outline of general system theory. Br J Philos Sci 1:139–164Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Von Bertalanffy L (1968) General System Theory. Braziller, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Von Foerster H (1984) Observing Systems, 2nd edn. Intersystems Publications, SeasideGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Von Foerster H (ed) (1995) Cybernetics of Cybernetics, 2nd edn. Future Systems, Minneapolis (Originally published in 1974)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Von Foerster H, Zopf GW (eds) (1962) Principles of Self-Organization. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Vriens D, Achtenbergh J (2006) The social dimension of system dynamics-based modelling. Syst Res Behav Sci 23(4):553–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Warfield JN (1994) A Science of Generic Design: Managing Complexity through Systems Design, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Warren K (2002) Competitive Strategy Dynamics. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Warren K (2008) Strategic Management Dynamics. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wiener N (1948) Cybernetics: Control and Communication in the Animal and in the Machine. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wolstenholme E (2003) Towards the definition and use of a core set of archetypal structures in system dynamics. Syst Dyn Rev 19(1):7–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yolles MA (1998) Cybernetic exploration of methodological complement. Kybern 27(5):527–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. 84.
    Jackson MC (2003) Systems Thinking: Creative Holism for Managers. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  2. 85.
    Klir GJ (2001) Facets of Systems Science, 2nd edn. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York Google Scholar
  3. 86.
    Midgley G (ed) (2003) Systems Thinking, vol 4. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 87.
    Ragsdell G, Wilby J (eds) (2001) Understanding Complexity. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 88.
    Richardson GP (ed) (1996) Modelling for Management. Simulation in Support of Systems Thinking, 2 Volumes. Aldershot, DartmouthGoogle Scholar
  6. 89.
    Schwaninger M (2006) Intelligent Organizations. Powerful Model for Systemic Management. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. 90.
    Van Gigch JP (2003) Metadecisions. Rehabilitating Epistemology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Schwaninger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ManagementUniversity of St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland