Extreme Environmental Events

2011 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers (Editor-in-Chief)

Earthquake Damage: Detection and Early Warning in Man-Made Structures

  • Maria I. Todorovska
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7695-6_12

Article Outline

Glossary

Definition of the Subject

Introduction

Literature Review

Damage and Damage-Sensitive Features

Structural Models and Identification

Examples

Future Directions

Bibliography

Keywords

Shear Wave Velocity Damage Detection Structural Health Monitoring Structural Health Monitoring System Shear Beam 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Applied Technology Council (1989) Procedures for post-earthquake safety evaluation of buildings. Report ATC-20. Redwood CityGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beltrami E (1987) Mathematics for Dynamic Modeling. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carder DS (1936) Vibration observations. In: Earthquake Investigations in California 1934–1935. US Dept. of Commerce, Coast and Geological Survey, Special Publication No 201. Washington DC, pp 49–106Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carden EP, Fanning P (2004) Vibration Based Condition Monitoring: a Review. Struct Health Monit 3(4):355–377. doi:10.1177/1475921704047500 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Celebi M, Sanli A (2002) GPS in pioneering dynamic monitoring of long-period structures. Earthq Spectr 18(1):47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Celebi M, Sanli A, Sinclair M, Gallant S, Radulescu D (2004) Real-time seismic monitoring needs of a building owner–and the solution: a cooperative effort. Earthq Spectr 20(2):333–346Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chang PC, Flatau A, Liu SC (2003) Review paper: health monitoring of civil infrastructure. Struct Health Monit 2(3):257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clinton JF, Bradford SK, Heaton TH, Favela J (2006) The observed wander of the natural frequencies in a structure. Bull Seism Soc Am 96(1):237–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crawford R, Ward HS (1968) Determination of the natural periods of building. Bull Seism Soc Am 54(6A):1743–1756Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Doebling SW, Farrar CR, Prime MB (1998) A summary review of vibration-based damage identification methods. Shock Vib Dig 30(2):91–105. doi:10.1177/058310249803000201
  11. 11.
    Doebling SW, Farrar CR, Prime MB, Shevitz DW (1996) Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: a literature review. Report LA-13070-MS. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los AlamosGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Farrar CR, Worden K (2007) An introduction to structural health monitoring. Phil Trans R Soc A 365:303–315. doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Foutch DA, Luco JE, Trifunac MD, Udwadia FE (1975) Full-scale three-dimensional tests of structural deformations during forced excitation of a nine-story reinforced concrete building. Proc. of the US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Ann Arbor, pp 206–215Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ghobarah A (2004) On drift limits associated with different damage levels. Proc. of the International Workshop on Performance-Based Design, 28 June–1 July 2004, Bled, Slovenia, pp 4321–332Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Graizer VM (1991) Inertial seismometry methods, Izvestiya. Earth Phys Akad Nauk SSSR 27(1):51–61Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Graizer VM (2005) Effect of tilt on strong motion data processing. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 25:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hera A, Hou Z (2004) Application of wavelet approach for ASCE structural health monitoring benchmark studies. J Eng Mech ASCE 130(1):96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hou Z, Noori M, Amand R (2000) Wavelet-based approach for structural damage detection. J Eng Mech ASCE 126(7):677–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hudson DE (1970) Dynamic tests of full scale structures. In: Wiegel RL (ed) Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall, pp 127–149Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ivanović SS, Trifunac MD, Todorovska MI (2001) On identification of damage in structures via wave travel times. In: Erdik M, Celebi M, Mihailov V, Apaydin N (eds) Proc. of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Strong-Motion Instrumentation for Civil Engineering Structures, 2–5 June, 1999. Kluwer, Istanbul, pp 447–468Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kalkan E, Graizer V (2007) Multi-component ground motion response spectra for coupled horizontal, vertical, angular accelerations and tilt. Indian J Earthq Technol (special issue on Response Spectra) 44(1):259–284Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kanai K (1965) Some new problems of seismic vibrations of a structure. Proc. of the Third World Conf. Earthquake Eng, 22 January, 1 February, 1965. Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand, pp II-260–II-275Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kapitaniak T (1991) Chaotic Oscillations in Mechanical Systems. Manchester Univ. Press, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kawakami H, Oyunchimeg M (2003) Normalized input-output minimization analysis of wave propagation in buildings. Eng Struct 25(11):1429–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kawakami H, Oyunchimeg M (2004) Wave propagation modeling analysis of earthquake records for buildings. J Asian Archit Build Eng 3(1):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kohler MD, Heaton T, Bradford SC (2007) Propagating waves in the steel, moment-frame Factor building recorded during earthquakes. Bull Seism Soc Am 97(4):1334–1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kojić S, Trifunac MD, Anderson JC (1984) A post earthquake response analysis of the Imperial County Services building in El Centro. Report CE 84-02. University of Southern California, Department of Civil Engineering, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee VW, Trifunac MD (1990) Automatic digitization and processing of accelerograms using PC, Dept. of Civil Eng. Report CE 90-03. Univ. Southern California, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee WHK, Celebi M, Todorovska MI, Diggles MF (eds) (2007) Rotational Seismology and Engineering Applications. Online Proceedings for the First International Workshop, September 18–19 September, Menlo Park. US Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2007-1144 http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1144
  30. 30.
    Lighthill J (1994) Chaos: A historical perspective. In: Newman WI, Gabrielov A, Turcotte D (eds) Nonlinear Dynamics and Predictability of Geophysical Phenomena. Geophysical Monograph 83, IUGG, vol 18 pp 1–5Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu SC, Tomizuka M, Ulsoy G (2006) Strategic issues in sensors and smart structures. Struct Control Health Monit 13:946–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luco JE, Trifunac MD, Udwadia FE (1975) An experimental study of ground deformations caused by soil-structure interaction. Proc. US National Conf. on Earthq. Eng. Ann Arbor, MI, pp 136–145Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Luco JE, Trifunac MD, Wong HL (1987) On the apparent change in the dynamic behavior of a nine-story reinforced concrete building. Bull Seism Soc Am 77(6):1961–1983Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Luco JE, Trifunac MD, Wong HL (1988) Isolation of soil-structure interaction effects by full-scale forced vibration tests. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 16:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ma J, Pines DJ (2003) Damage detection in a building structure model under seismic excitation using dereverberated wave machines. Eng Struct 25:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mallat SG (1989) Multiresolution approximations and wavelet orthonormal bases of L2(R). Trans Am Math Soc 315:69–87Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Oyunchimeg M, Kawakami H (2003) A new method for propagation analysis of earthquake waves in damaged buildings: Evolutionary Normalized Input-Output Minimization (NIOM). J Asian Archit Build Eng 2(1):9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rezai M, Rahmatian P, Ventura C (1998) Seismic data analysis of a seven-storey building using frequency response function and wavelet transform. Proc. of the NEHRP Conference and Workshop on Research on the Northridge, California Earthquake, 17 January, 1994. CUREe, Oakland, pp 421–428Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Snieder R, Şafak E (2006) Extracting the building response using interferometry: theory and applications to the Millikan Library in Pasadena, California. Bull Seism Soc Am 96(2):586–598Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sohn H, Farrar CR, Hemez FM, Shunk DD, Stinemates DW, Nadler BR (2003) A Review of Structural Health Monitoring Literature: 1996–2001, Report LA-13976-MS. Los Alamos National LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Şafak E (1998) Detection of seismic damage in multi-story buildings by using wave propagation analysis. Proc. of the Sixth US National Conf. on Earthquake Eng. EERI, Oakland, Paper No 171, pp 12Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Şafak E (1999) Wave propagation formulation of seismic response of multi-story buildings. J Struct Eng ASCE 125(4):426–437Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Todorovska MI (1998) Cross-axis sensitivity of accelerographs with pendulum like transducers: mathematical model and the inverse problem. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 27:1031–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Todorovska MI (2009) Seismic interferometry of a soil-structure interaction model with coupled horizontal and rocking response. Bull Seism Soc Am 99-2A (in press)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Todorovska MI (2008) Soil‐structure system indetification of Millikan Library north‐south response during four earthquakes (1970–2002): what caused the observed wandering of the system frequencies? Bull Seism Soc Am 99-2A (in press)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Todorovska MI, Al Rjoub Y (2006) Effects of rainfall on soil-structure system frequency: examples based on poroelasticity and a comparison with full-scale measurements. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 26(6–7):708–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Todorovska MI, Al Rjoub Y (2008) Environmental effects on measured structural frequencies – model prediction of short term shift during heavy rainfall and comparison with full-scale observations. Struct Control Health Monit (in press)doi:10.1002/stc.260
  48. 48.
    Todorovska MI, Lee VW (1989) Seismic waves in buildings with shear walls or central core. J Eng Mech ASCE 115(12):2669–2686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD (1989) Antiplane earthquake waves in long structures. J Eng Mech ASCE 115(12):2687–2708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD (1990) A note on the propagation of earthquake waves in buildings with soft first floor. J Eng Mech ASCE 116(4):892–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD (2005) Structural Health Monitoring by Detection of Abrupt Changes in Response Using Wavelets: Application to a 6-story RC Building Damaged by an Earthquake. Proc. of the 37th Joint Panel Meeting on Wind and Seismic Effects, 16–21 May, 2005. Tsukuba, Japan. US Japan Natural Resources Program (UJNR), pp 20Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD (2007) Earthquake damage detection in the Imperial County Services Building I: the data and time-frequency analysis. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 27(6):564–576Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD (2008) Impulse response analysis of the Van Nuys 7-storey hotel during 11 earthquakes and earthquake damage detection. Struct Control Health Monit 15(1):90–116. doi:10.1002/stc.208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD (2008) Earthquake damage detection in the Imperial County Services Building III: analysis of wave travel times via impulse response functions. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 21(5):387–404. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2007.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD (2008) Earthquake damage detection in the Imperial County Services Building II: analysis of novelties via wavelets. Struct Control Health Monit (submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD, Ivanović SS (2001) Wave propagation in a seven-story reinforced concrete building, Part I: theoretical models. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 21(3):211–223Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Todorovska MI, Trifunac MD, Ivanović SS (2001) Wave propagation in a seven-story reinforced concrete building, Part II: observed wave numbers. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 21(3):225–236Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Trifunac MD (2007) Early History of the Response Spectrum Method, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Report CE 07-01. Univ. Southern California, Los Angeles, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Trifunac MD, Todorovska MI (2001) A note on the useable dynamic range of accelerographs recording translation. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 21(4):275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Trifunac MD, Todorovska MI (2001) Evolution of accelerographs, data processing, strong motion arrays and amplitude and spatial resolution in recording strong earthquake motion. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 21(6):537–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Trifunac MD, Todorovska MI (2001) Recording and interpreting earthquake response of full-scale structures: In Erdik M, Celebi M, Mihailov V, Apaydin N (eds) Proc. of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Strong-Motion Instrumentation for Civil Engineering Structures, 2–5 June, 1999. Kluwer, Istanbul, p 24Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Trifunac MD, Ivanovic SS, Todorovska MI (1999) Experimental evidence for flexibility of a building foundation supported by concrete friction piles. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 18(3):169–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Trifunac MD, Todorovska MI, Hao TY (2001) Full-scale experimental studies of soil-structure interaction – a review. Proc. of the 2nd US Japan Workshop on Soil-Structure Interaction, 6–8 March, 2001. Tsukuba City, Japan, pp 52Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Trifunac MD, Ivanović SS, Todorovska MI (2003). Wave propagation in a seven-story reinforced concrete building, Part III: damage detection via changes in wave numbers. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 23(1):65–75Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Trifunac MD, Todorovska MI, Manić MI, Bulajić BĐ (2008) Variability of the fixed-base and soil-structure system frequencies of a building – the case of Borik-2 building. Struct Control Health Monit (in press). doi:10.1002/stc.277
  66. 66.
    Udwadia FE, Jerath N (1980) Time variations of structural properties during strong ground shaking. J Eng Mech Div ASCE 106(EM1):111–121Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Udwadia FE, Marmarelis PZ (1976) The identification of building structural systems I. The linear case. Bull Seism Soc Am 66(1):125–151Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Udwadia FE, Marmarelis PZ (1976) The identification of building structural systems II. The nonlinear case. Bull Seism Soc Am 66(1):153–171Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Udwadia FE, Trifunac MD (1974) Time and amplitude dependent response of structures. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 2:359–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ward HS, Crawford R (1966) Wind induced vibrations and building modes. Bull Seism Soc Am 56(4):793–813Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wong HL, Trifunac MD, Luco JE (1988) A comparison of soil-structure interaction calculations with results of full-scale forced vibration tests. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 7(1):22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria I. Todorovska
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA