Global Navigation Satellite Systems: Orbital Parameters, Time and Space Reference Systems and Signal Structures

  • Rogerio Enríquez-Caldera
Reference work entry


Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are part of the most complex modern space systems humankind has created, and therefore, their orbits, orbital parameters, and their two main terrestrial mappings are firstly described. Different frames of space-time reference systems are treated as part of such descriptions.

Communication systems engineering are important sections to allow for a GNSS precise fix positioning. All signal structures and data streams are treated for a clear understanding permitting the reader to see how ranging is obtained from space.

Theoretical and practical error budgets are considered to give the reader a perception of limitations during scientific and/or technical user campaigns or for simple common life enjoyment.


MEO orbit Reference systems International atomic time (TAI) Signal structure Frequency issues Relativistic time dilation Modulation techniques Pseudorandom codes Carrier frequencies C/A and P(Y) codes Data stream Pseudo-range Accumulated delta range Sources of error and error budgets Differential GNSS Kinematic and real time kinematic systems. 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Space Science and Technology Education for Latin America and the Caribbean, México Campus (CRECTEALC), National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (INAOE), Coordinación de ElectrónicaTonantzintlaMexico

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