Fuel Cells, Principles and Thermodynamics
Through fuel cells we can convert chemical energy to electrical energy directly where fuel and oxidant are supplied from the outside of a cell. Fuel cells are the energy conversion systems rather than the energy storage devices such as primary or secondary batteries. Fuel cell was invented by Schoenbein  or Sir William Grove  in 1939. This invention was before those of a lead acid battery and a manganese dry cell.
From the early stage of the fuel cell development, several types have been developed. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC or PEMFC), a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), and an alkaline fuel cell (AFC) are the fuel cells which use principally hydrogen as a fuel. The difference is the electrolyte. Alcohols, ethers, and hydrides, including hydrazine besides hydrogen, can be used directly for a fuel cell system. A methanol fuel cell is called a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
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