Gambling consists of any activity that involves risking something of value on the outcome of an event (e.g., lotteries, bingo, slot machines, sporting events, card games, and more), when the probability of that outcome is less than certain. For most individuals, gambling is a form of recreation, but for some people it can lead to negative consequences, such as poor mental and physical health, financial difficulties, and degraded social relationships. Recent studies have estimated the rate of gambling-related problems (i.e., experiencing some negative gambling-related consequences) in the adult US population to be 2–3%, whereas the most recent US national studies suggest that less than 1% suffer from the most serious form of disordered gambling, pathological gambling (PG). Currently, one can make a diagnosis of PG using professional diagnostic instruments, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM criteria for PG include, but are not limited to:...
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