Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

2013 Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar

Noradrenergic System

  • Yoshihiro TakeuchiEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3_1541



In this entry, autistic disorder (Kanner’s “autism”), childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive development disorder not otherwise specified (“atypical autism”), and Asperger syndrome are collectively termed “autism spectrum disorder (ASD).” ASDs are complex neurodevelopmental disorders with a wide range of behavioral manifestations (Persico & Bourgeron, 2006). Research in the neurobiology of ASD will lead to optimal treatments for this heterogeneous group of ASDs; the impact of ASD can be minimized through intensive intervention, especially during early childhood. (Holden & Liu, 2005; Johnston & Blue, 2006; Lam, Aman, & Arnold, 2006; Persico & Bourgeron, 2006).

Abnormalities in brain structure and function are common in ASD patients, but there is variability among subjects. Several reports have described postnatal macrocephaly in ASD patients (Amaral, Schumann, & Nordahl, 2008). Qualitative magnetic...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Amaral, D. G., Schumann, C. M., & Nordahl, C. W. (2008). Neuroanatomy of autism. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 137–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bouret, S., & Sara, S. J. (2005). Network reset: A simplified overarching theory of locus coeruleus noradrenaline function. Trends in Neurosciences, 28, 574–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradford, H. F. (1985). The catecholamine and indoleamine neurotransmitter systems: Chemical neurobiology – An introduction to neurochemistry (pp. 179–208). New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  4. Dahlstrom, A., & Fuxe, K. (1964). Evidence for the existence of monoamine-containing neurons in the central nervous system. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 62(Suppl. 232), 1–55.Google Scholar
  5. Holden, J. J. A., & Liu, X. (2005). The roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in autism: From behavior and pharmacotherapy to genetics. In M. L. Bauman & T. L. Kemper (Eds.), The neurobiology of autism (2nd ed., pp. 276–299). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Johnston, M., & Blue, M. (2006). Neurobiology of autism. In T. Tuchman & I. Rapin (Eds.), Autism: A neurobiological disorder of early brain development (pp. 80–92). London: Mac Keith.Google Scholar
  7. Koves, K., & Heinzlmann, A. (2007). Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in autism. In B. S. Mesmere (Ed.), New autism research development (pp. 25–85). New York: Nova.Google Scholar
  8. Lam, S. L., Aman, M. G., & Arnold, L. E. (2006). Neurochemical correlates of autistic disorders: A review of the literature. Reseach in Developmental Disabilities, 27, 254–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Launay, J. M., Bursztejn, C., Ferrarifl, P., Dreux, C., Braconnier, A., Zarifian, E., et al. (1987). Catecholamines metabolism in infantile autism: A controlled study of 22 autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 333–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mehler, M. F., & Purpura, D. P. (2009). Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus. Brain Research Reviews, 59, 388–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nieuwenhuys, R. (1985). Chemoarchitecture of the brain (pp. 11–52). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Persico, A. M., & Bourgeron, T. (2006). Searching for ways out of the autism maze: Genetic, epigenetic and environmental clues. Trends in Neurosciences, 29, 349–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Roohi, J., DeVincent, C. J., Hatchwell, A. E., & Gadow, K. D. (2009). Association of a monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter polymorphism with ADHD and anxiety in boys with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsShiga University of Medical ScienceOtsu, ShigaJapan