Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

2012 Edition
| Editors: Norbert M. Seel

Independent Learning

  • Kay LivingstonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_895



Independent learning is a method or learning process where learners have ownership and control of their learning – they learn by their own actions and direct, regulate, and assess their own learning. The independent learner is able to set goals, make choices, and decisions about how to meet his learning needs, take responsibility for constructing and carrying out his own learning, monitor his progress toward achieving his learning goals, and self-assess the learning outcomes.

Theoretical Background

The concept of independent learning is associated with, or a part of other educational concepts and wider policy agendas, such as improving the educational experiences and outcomes for learners through student-centered learning approaches that personalize learning and enable the learner to take ownership of the learning process (Meyer et al. 2008). An understanding of how learners learn, both in...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of Glasgow, College of Social SciencesGlasgowUK