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Logical Reasoning and Learning

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Logical thinking


Logical reasoning is a form of thinking in which premises and relations between premises are used in a rigorous manner to infer conclusions that are entailed (or implied) by the premises and the relations. Different forms of logical reasoning are recognized in philosophy of science and artificial intelligence. Deductive reasoning, considered typical of mathematics, starts with premises and relations, which lead to a conclusion. For example, if A = B and B = C (the premises), the inevitable conclusion is that A = C because equality is a transitive relation. Note that if A ≠ B and B ≠ C, it is not possible to draw the conclusion that A ≠ C because inequality is not a transitive relation. Inductive reasoning, necessary in empirical sciences, uses observations to arrive at premises as well as relations between premises, which are then used to arrive at conclusions. Inductive reasoning cannot convey the certainty of deductive reasoning: Even if the...

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Correspondence to Terezinha Nunes .

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© 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

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Nunes, T. (2012). Logical Reasoning and Learning. In: Seel, N.M. (eds) Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Springer, Boston, MA.

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