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Cross-Linguistic Influence and Transfer of Learning

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Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning


Cross-linguistic transfer; L1-L2 facilitation/inhibition; Language transfer; Linguistic interference


Cross-linguistic influence(CLI) is typically defined as the influence that knowledge of one language has on an individual’s learning or use of another language. This influence can involve various aspects of language. For example, for a native speaker of Spanish who is learning English, CLI may lead to Spanish-sounding pronunciation when speaking English (e.g., pronouncing “zoo” like “soo”), Spanish word or sentence order when writing in English (e.g., writing “The car red is mine,” instead of “The red car is mine”), or comprehension of Spanish words that look or sound similar to English words (e.g., “turista” = “tourist”). CLI is related to transfer of learning: Transfer of learning involves the application of knowledge in novel situations, and CLI can be seen as one specific type of transfer of learning restricted to language-related knowledge being applied in...

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Correspondence to Mark A. James .

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James, M.A. (2012). Cross-Linguistic Influence and Transfer of Learning. In: Seel, N.M. (eds) Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Springer, Boston, MA.

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