Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

2012 Edition
| Editors: Norbert M. Seel

Individual Differences

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_370



Individual differences can be defined as personal characteristics that distinguish learners from each other in the teaching and learning processes. Learners are unique individuals who bring a critical set of variables to each learning situation, including delicate traits as indicators of their potential and the history of achievement as signs of previous accomplishments and predictors of future performance.

Theoretical Background

There are a number of individual differences that affect performance and attitudes of learners during teaching and learning. The most common differences of learners are gender, age, intelligence, ability, interest, prior knowledge, learning style, motivation, locus of control, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs (Kuzgun and Deryakulu 2004).

Genderis not only about biological sex of learners. It is more of social perceptions, attributions, sensitivities, and treatments...

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  1. Buss, D. M., & Greiling, H. (1999). Adaptive individual differences. Journal of Personality, 67, 209–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kuzgun, Y., & Deryakulu, D. (Eds.). (2004). Egitimde bireysel farkliliklar [Individual differences in education]. Ankara: Nobel.Google Scholar
  3. Maltby, J., Day, L., & Macaskill, A. (2007). Personality, individual differences and intelligence. London: Pearson Education.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Communication SciencesAnadolu UniversityEskisehirTurkey