Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

2012 Edition
| Editors: Norbert M. Seel

ARCS Model of Motivation

  • John M. KellerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_217

Synonyms

Definition

The ARCS model (Keller 1983) is a motivational design process that includes a synthesis of motivational concepts and theories that are clustered into four categories: attention (A), relevance (R), confidence (C), and satisfaction (S). Each of these major categories contains subcategories that consist of smaller, more homogeneous subsets of concepts. The categories resulted from grouping motivational concepts based on shared attributes. The categories and subcategories provide a basis for analyzing the characteristics of learner motivation to determine how to create motivational strategies and learning environments that stimulate and sustain people’s desires to learn. The design process can also be used to identify deficiencies in specific areas of learner motivation so that remedial strategies can be developed.

Theoretical Background

The categories that emerged were based on an empirical examination of the...

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References

  1. Baylor, A. (2007). Pedagogical agents as social interface. Educational Technology, 47(1), 11–14.Google Scholar
  2. Keller, J. M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  3. Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS model approach. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Kim, C. M., & Keller, J. M. (2008). Effects of motivational and volitional email messages (MVEM) with personal messages on undergraduate students’ motivation, study habits and achievement. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(1), 36–51.Google Scholar
  5. Oh, S. Y. (2006). The effects of reusable motivational objects in designing reusable learning object-based instruction. Tallahassee: The Florida State University.Google Scholar
  6. Song, S. H., & Keller, J. M. (2001). Effectiveness of motivationally adaptive computer-assisted instruction on the dynamic aspects of motivation. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(2), 5–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instructional Systems Program (Emeritus), Department of Educational Psychology & Learning SystemsFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA