Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

2012 Edition
| Editors: Norbert M. Seel

Elaboration Effects on Learning

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_170

Synonyms

Definition

Elaboration is a cognitive learning strategythat involves any enhancement of information that clarifies or specifies the relationship between information to-be-learned and related information, i.e., a learner’s prior knowledge and experience or contiguously presented information. The addition can be an inference, an example, an analogy, a detail, an image, an overall summary, or any other mental construction. Essentially, elaboration is encoding the original content in a different but related way. There are primarily two kinds of elaboration: visual and verbal. For example, to learn the pair “cow-ball” a person could form a visual image of a cow kicking a ball. Alternatively, someone could create a sentence such as “The cow ran after the ball.” Elaborations can also differ in terms of source, i.e., in many instructional situations, learners are asked to generate the elaborations themselves. In contrast, relevant...

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References

  1. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 2, pp. 89–195). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  2. Dornisch, M., Sperling, R. A., & Zeruth, J. A. (2011). The effects of levels of elaboration on learners’ strategic processing of text. Instructional Science, 39(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Teaching, Learning and DevelopmentUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand