Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

2012 Edition
| Editors: Norbert M. Seel

Internal Reinforcement Hypothesis

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_1066

Synonyms

Definition

The internal reinforcement hypothesis proposes that in retrieving a consolidated memory, two forms of learning take place, one based on the lack of external reinforcement (extinction learning) and one based on the internal existence of reinforcement (reminder learning). The internal reinforcement hypothesis offers an interpretation for the phenomenon of spontaneous recovery based on the properties of the reward system activated by appetitive stimuli and may capture properties of reconsolidation (Eisenhardt and Menzel 2007).

Theoretical Background

In classical conditioning, an animal learns that a previous neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) is associated with an unconditioned stimulus (US). As a consequence, a conditioned response (CR) is elicited by the CS when presented without the US. Repeated presentations of the unreinforced conditioned...

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References

  1. Eisenhardt, D., & Menzel, R. (2007). Extinction learning, reconsolidation and the internal reinforcement hypothesis. Neurobioogy of Learning and Memory, 87, 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hammer, M. (1993). An identified neuron mediates the unconditioned stimulus in associative olfactorylearning in honeybees. Nature, 366, 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Nader, K., & Hardt, O. (2009). A single standard for memory: the case for reconsolidation. Nat Review of Neuroscience, 10(3), 224–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schultz, W. (2006). Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 87–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology/Chemistry/PharmacyInstitut für Biologie - Neurobiologie, Freie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany