Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science

2013 Edition
| Editors: Saul I. Gass, Michael C. Fu


  • Frederic H. MurphyEmail author
  • Sidney W. Hess
  • Carlos G. Wong-Martinez
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1153-7_766


Applications of OR/MS to the representation and electoral processes are considered here. The narrower definition of politics is followed, denoting the theory and practice of managing political affairs in a party sense (Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary 1951). In particular, applications to the following are considered:
  • Apportionment

  • Districting

  • Voting methods and logistics, and

  • Election analysis


This is the process of equitably assigning a fixed number of legislators to a lesser number of political subdivisions. In the United States, 435 congressional districts must be apportioned to 50 states with each state receiving at least one district. The method of rounding to an integer solution influences the political result.

Balinski and Young (1982) have provided an exceptional mathematical analysis of the issue along with an historical, nontechnical exposition. In 1791, following the first U.S. census, Jefferson and Hamilton proposed alternative methods for...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic H. Murphy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sidney W. Hess
    • 2
  • Carlos G. Wong-Martinez
    • 3
  1. 1.The Fox School of Business and ManagementTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Chadds Ford, PhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Woosong UniversityDaejeonKorea