Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Optimism and Pessimism: Measurement

  • Ryan Garcia
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_972



Measures assessing optimism and pessimism have been developed from two perspectives. The first is from the expectancy perspective which reflects the expectations an individual has about their future. From this perspective, dispositional optimism is described as the tendency for an individual to have positive expectations about the future, whereas dispositional pessimism is the tendency to have negative expectations about the future. The second perspective is based on attributional style. Conceptually, attributional style refers to an individual’s habitual manner of explaining the cause of negative events. Explanatory styles can be...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at DallasDallasUSA