Optimism and Pessimism: Measurement
Attributional style questionnaire (ASQ); Expanded attributional style questionnaire (EASQ); Extended life orientation test (E-LOT); Life orientation test (LOT); Optimism and pessimism scale (OPS); Parent-rated life orientation test of children (P-LOT); Revised life orientation test (LOT-R); Youth life orientation test (Y-LOT)
Measures assessing optimism and pessimism have been developed from two perspectives. The first is from the expectancy perspective which reflects the expectations an individual has about their future. From this perspective, dispositional optimism is described as the tendency for an individual to have positive expectations about the future, whereas dispositional pessimism is the tendency to have negative expectations about the future. The second perspective is based on attributional style. Conceptually, attributional style refers to an individual’s habitual manner of explaining the cause of negative events. Explanatory styles can be...
References and Readings
- Chang, E. C., Maydeu-Olivares, A., & D’Zurilla, T. J. (1997). Optimism and pessimism as partially independent constructs: Relationship to positive and negative affectivity and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(3), 433–440.Google Scholar