Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change

  • James O. ProchaskaEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_70



The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) construes behavior change as an intentional process that unfolds over time and involves progress through a series of six stages of change (Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992a). TTM integrates processes and principles of change from across leading theories, hence the name Transtheoretical.


Precontemplation is the initial stage in which individuals are not intending to take action in the foreseeable future, usually assessed as the next 6 months.

People can be in this stage due to a lack of awareness of the health consequences of a behavior.

Or, they can be demoralized about their abilities to change, like millions of people who have tried to lose weight multiple times in multiple ways. This stage is often misunderstood to mean that these people do not want to change.

The history of demoralized individuals indicates that they want to change, but they have given up on their abilities to change.


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References and Readings

  1. Evers, K. E., Prochaska, J. O., Johnson, J. L., Mauriello, L. M., Padula, J. A., & Prochaska, J. M. (2006). A randomized clinical trial of a population and transtheoretical model-based stress-management intervention. Health Psychology, 25, 521–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  14. Velicer, W. F., Redding, C. A., Sun, X., & Prochaska, J. O. (2007). Demographic variables, smoking variables, and outcome across five studies. Health Psychology, 26(3), 278–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical and Health PsychologyUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA