Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change

  • James O. Prochaska
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_70

Synonyms

Definition

The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) construes behavior change as an intentional process that unfolds over time and involves progress through a series of six stages of change (Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992a). TTM integrates processes and principles of change from across leading theories, hence the name Transtheoretical.

Description

Precontemplation is the initial stage in which individuals are not intending to take action in the foreseeable future, usually assessed as the next 6 months.

People can be in this stage due to a lack of awareness of the health consequences of a behavior.

Or, they can be demoralized about their abilities to change, like millions of people who have tried to lose weight multiple times in multiple ways. This stage is often misunderstood to mean that these people do not want to change.

The history of demoralized individuals indicates that they want to change, but they have given up on their abilities to change.

Con...

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References and Readings

  1. Evers, K. E., Prochaska, J. O., Johnson, J. L., Mauriello, L. M., Padula, J. A., & Prochaska, J. M. (2006). A randomized clinical trial of a population and transtheoretical model-based stress-management intervention. Health Psychology, 25, 521–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hall, K. L., & Rossi, J. S. (2008). Meta-analytic examination of the strong and weak principles across 48 health behaviors. Preventive Medicine, 46, 266–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Johnson, S. S., Driskell, M. M., Johnson, J. L., Dyment, S. J., Prochaska, J. O., Prochaska, J. M., et al. (2006). Transtheoretical model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Disease Management, 9, 102–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Prochaska, J. O. (2008). Multiple health behavior research represents the future of preventive medicine. Preventive Medicine, 46, 281–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Prochaska, J. O., Butterworth, S., Redding, C., Burden, V., Perrin, N., & Leo, M. (2008). Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring and HRI’s with multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Preventive Medicine, 45, 226–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self? change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992a). In search of how people change: Applications to the addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992b). In search of how people change: Applications to the addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Prochaska, J. O., Norcross, J. C., & DiClemente, C. C. (1994). Changing for good. New York: Morrow. Released in paperback by Avon, 1995.Google Scholar
  10. Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Fava, J. L., Rossi, J. S., & Tsoh, J. Y. (2001). Evaluating a population-based recruitment approach and a stage-based expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 583–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Prochaska, J. J., Velicer, W. F., Prochaska, J. O., Deluschi, K. I., & Hall, S. M. (2006). Comparing intervention outcomes in smokers with single versus multiple behavior risks. Health Psychology, 25, 380–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Prochaska, J. O., Wright, J. A., & Velicer, W. F. (2008). Evaluating theories of health behavior change: A hierarchy of criteria applied to the transtheroetical model. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57(4), 561–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Snow, M. G., Prochaska, J. O., & Rossi, J. S. (1992). Stages of change for smoking cessation among former problem drinkers: A cross-sectional analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse, 4, 107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Velicer, W. F., Redding, C. A., Sun, X., & Prochaska, J. O. (2007). Demographic variables, smoking variables, and outcome across five studies. Health Psychology, 26(3), 278–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical and Health PsychologyUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA