Energy expenditure refers to the amount of energy an individual uses to maintain essential body functions (respiration, circulation, digestion) and as a result of physical activity. Total daily energy expenditure is determined by resting or basal metabolic rate (BMR), food-induced thermogenesis, and energy expended as a result of physical activity.
BMR is the minimum amount of energy that the body requires for essential organ and cellular function when lying in a state of physiological and mental rest. BMR accounts for typically 65–75% of total energy expenditure. Differences in BMR exist between genders and across ages. Females tend to have a lower BMR than males, and BMR decreases with age. These differences can largely be accounted for by differences in fat-free mass, which is proportional to BMR.
Food-induced thermogenesis refers to the increase in energy expenditure following the ingestion of food. This increase in energy expenditure is a result of digestion,...
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
References and Readings
McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2001). Exercise physiology: Energy, nutrition and human performance (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Widmaier, E. P., Raff, H., & Strang, K. T. (2004). Vander, Sherman, & Luciano’s human physiology: The mechanism of body function. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, New York
About this entry
Cite this entry
Heaney, J. (2013). Energy: Expenditure, Intake, Lack of. In: Gellman, M.D., Turner, J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_454
Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY
Print ISBN: 978-1-4419-1004-2
Online ISBN: 978-1-4419-1005-9