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Energy: Expenditure, Intake, Lack of

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Energy expenditure refers to the amount of energy an individual uses to maintain essential body functions (respiration, circulation, digestion) and as a result of physical activity. Total daily energy expenditure is determined by resting or basal metabolic rate (BMR), food-induced thermogenesis, and energy expended as a result of physical activity.

BMR is the minimum amount of energy that the body requires for essential organ and cellular function when lying in a state of physiological and mental rest. BMR accounts for typically 65–75% of total energy expenditure. Differences in BMR exist between genders and across ages. Females tend to have a lower BMR than males, and BMR decreases with age. These differences can largely be accounted for by differences in fat-free mass, which is proportional to BMR.

Food-induced thermogenesis refers to the increase in energy expenditure following the ingestion of food. This increase in energy expenditure is a result of digestion,...

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References and Readings

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Correspondence to Jennifer Heaney .

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© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, New York

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Heaney, J. (2013). Energy: Expenditure, Intake, Lack of. In: Gellman, M.D., Turner, J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. Springer, New York, NY.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4419-1004-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4419-1005-9

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