Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a specific group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine. IBD consists of the two major diseases: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). UC causes inflammation in the rectum, colon, and infrequently the terminal ileum. CD can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus and particularly affects the ileum and/or the colon. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood.
The cause of IBD is not clearly known, but these diseases are thought to be due to an autoimmune process that has been triggered by unknown factors or agents, such as genetic predisposition, infection of microorganisms, and/or environmental factors. As a result of the ulcers and inflammatory reaction of the mucosal layer of the small intestine or the colon, the intestinal wall is damaged leading to bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. In recent studies, psychosocial...