Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Internet-Based Studies

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_28



Internet-based studies are roughly systematized in four categories (Reips, 2006): Internet-based experiments, web surveys and questionnaires, Internet-based assessment, and nonreactive data collection on the Internet. In a wider sense, studies about human activities on the Internet can also be defined as Internet-based studies.



The first Internet-based studies were conducted in the mid-1990s, shortly after the World Wide Web had been invented at CERN in Geneva (Musch & Reips, 2000; Reips, 2006). Conducting studies via the Internet is considered a second revolution in behavioral research, after the computer revolution in the late 1960s and early 1970s that brought about many advantages over widely used paper-and-pencil procedures (e.g., automated processes, heightened precision). The Internet revolution in behavioral research added the dimension of interactivity via a...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Birnbaum, M. H. (2004). Human research and data collection via the Internet. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 803–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buchanan, T. (2001). Online personality assessment. In U.-D. Reips & M. Bosnjak (Eds.), Dimensions of Internet science (pp. 57–74). Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science.Google Scholar
  3. Buchanan, T., Joinson, A. N., Paine, C., & Reips, U.-D. (2007). Looking for medical information on the Internet: Self-disclosure, privacy and trust. He@lth Information on the Internet, 58, 8–9.Google Scholar
  4. Buffardi, L. E., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Narcissism and social networking web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1303–1314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dillman, D. A., & Bowker, D. (2001). The web questionnaire challenge to survey methodologists. In U.-D. Reips & M. Bosnjak (Eds.), Dimensions of Internet science (pp. 159–177). Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science.Google Scholar
  6. Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M. (2009). Internet, mail and mixed-mode surveys: The tailored design method (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Englesakis, M., Rizo, C., & Stern, A. (2004). Health-related virtual communities and electronic support groups: Systematic review of the effects of online peer-to-peer interactions. British Medical Journal, 328, 1166–1170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Joinson, A. N., McKenna, K., Postmes, T., & Reips, U.-D. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Joinson, A. N., Reips, U.-D., Buchanan, T., & Paine Schofield, C. (2010). Privacy, trust, and self-disclosure online. Human Computer Interaction, 25, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kraut, R., Olson, J., Banaji, M., Bruckman, A., Cohen, J., & Couper, M. (2004). Psychological research online: Report of board of scientific affairs’ advisory group on the conduct of research on the Internet. American Psychologist, 59, 105–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mangan, M., & Reips, U.-D. (2007). Sleep, sex, and the Web: Surveying the difficult-to-reach clinical population suffering from sexsomnia. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 233–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Musch, J., & Reips, U.-D. (2000). A brief history of web experimenting. In M. H. Birnbaum (Ed.), Psychological experiments on the Internet (pp. 61–88). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Reips, U.-D. (2002). Standards for Internet-based experimenting. Experimental Psychology, 49, 243–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Reips, U.-D. (2006). Web-based methods. In M. Eid & E. Diener (Eds.), Handbook of multimethod measurement in psychology (pp. 73–85). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Reips, U.-D. (2007). The methodology of Internet-based experiments. In A. Joinson, K. McKenna, T. Postmes, & U.-D. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology (pp. 373–390). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Reips, U.-D. (2010). Design and formatting in Internet-based research. In S. Gosling & J. Johnson (Eds.), Advanced Internet methods in the behavioral sciences (pp. 29–43). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  17. Reips, U.-D., & Birnbaum, M. H. (2011). Behavioral research and data collection via the Internet. In R. W. Proctor & K.-P. L. Vu (Eds.), The handbook of human factors in web design (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Reips, U.-D., & Bosnjak, M. (Eds.). (2001). Dimensions of Internet science. Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science.Google Scholar
  19. Reips, U.-D., & Garaizar, P. (2011). Mining Twitter: Microblogging as a source for psychological wisdom of the crowds. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 635–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Reips, U.-D., & Funke, F. (2008). Interval level measurement with visual analogue scales in Internet-based research: VAS Generator. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 699–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reips, U.-D., & Lengler, R. (2005). The web experiment list: A web service for the recruitment of participants and archiving of Internet-based experiments. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 287–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reips, U.-D., & Neuhaus, C. (2002). WEXTOR: A web-based tool for generating and visualizing experimental designs and procedures. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 34, 234–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schmidt, W. C. (1997). World-Wide Web survey research: Benefits, potential problems, and solutions. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 29, 274–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schmidt, W. C. (2007). Technical considerations when implementing online research. In A. Joinson, K. McKenna, T. Postmes, & U.-D. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology (pp. 461–472). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Stieger, S., & Reips, U.-D. (2010). What are participants doing while filling in an online questionnaire: A paradata collection tool and an empirical study. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1488–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Whitty, M. T., & Buchanan, T. (2010). “What’s in a ‘Screen Name’?” Attractiveness of different types of screen names used by online daters. International Journal of Internet Science, 5, 5–19.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering; Faculty of Education and PsychologyUniversidad de DeustoBilbaoSpain
  2. 2.IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for ScienceBilbaoSpain