The Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL) is a measure of coping based on Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) stress and coping theory. The WCCL contains 66 items that describe thoughts and acts that people use to deal with the internal and/or external demands of specific stressful encounters. Usually the encounter is described by the subject in an interview or in a brief written description saying who was involved, where it took place, and what happened. Sometimes a particular encounter, such as a medical treatment or an academic examination, is selected by the investigator as the focus of the questionnaire. Subjects respond on a 4-point Likert scale (0 = does not apply and/or not used; 3 = used a great deal), the extent to which the item was used in the specific stressful encounter.
Factor analysis of data from a study of stressful encounters reported by a community sample of middle-aged married couples indicated eight scales: planful problem-solving, positive reappraisal,...
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References and Readings
Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Gruen, R. J., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 571–579.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Schwarzer, R., & Schwarzer, C. (1996). A critical survey of coping instruments. In M. Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 107–132). Oxford, UK: Wiley.
Vitaliano, P. P., Maiuro, R. D., Russo, J., & Becker, J. (1987). Raw versus relative scores in the assessment of coping strategies. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 1–18.
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Folkman, S. (2013). Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL). In: Gellman, M.D., Turner, J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_222
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