The original Whitehall study of British civil servants began in 1967 and showed a steep inverse association between social class, as assessed by grade of employment, and mortality from a wide range of diseases. The Whitehall II study was later established in 1985 to identify causal pathways linking socioeconomic position to pathophysiological changes and clinical disease. The Whitehall II is an ongoing prospective cohort study of 10,308 British white-collar workers employed in the civil service (Marmot et al., 1991). The study is primarily interested in the pathways explaining social inequalities via characteristics of the work environment, such as job strain, and health-related behaviors including physical activity, smoking, and diet. Data are collected at regular intervals through a combination of self-administered questionnaires and clinical examination. In the 20 years separating the two studies, there has been no diminution in social class difference in morbidity:...
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
References and Readings
Hamer, M., O’Donnell, K., Lahiri, A., & Steptoe, A. (2010). Salivary cortisol responses to mental stress are associated with coronary artery calcification in healthy men and women. European Heart Journal, 31, 424–429.
Marmot, M. G., Davey Smith, G., Stansfeld, S., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., et al. (1991). Health inequalities among British civil servants: The Whitehall II study. Lancet, 337, 1387–1393.
Steptoe, A., Feldman, P. J., Kunz, S., Owen, N., Willemsen, G., & Marmot, M. (2002). Stress responsivity and socioeconomic status: A mechanism for increased cardiovascular disease risk? European Heart Journal, 23, 1757–1763.
Stringhini, S., Sabia, S., Shipley, M., Brunner, E., Nabi, H., Kivimaki, M., et al. (2010). Association of socioeconomic position with health behaviors and mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303, 1159–1166.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, New York
About this entry
Cite this entry
Hamer, M. (2013). Whitehall Study. In: Gellman, M.D., Turner, J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_1690
Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY
Print ISBN: 978-1-4419-1004-2
Online ISBN: 978-1-4419-1005-9