Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Osteopenia/Osteoporosis

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_1468

Definition

Osteopenia. Osteopenia is a condition where bone mineral density is lower than normal. It is considered to occur before osteoporosis. However, not every person diagnosed with osteopenia will develop osteoporosis. Osteopenia is not a disease but is a marker for the risk of fractures (Torpy, Lynm, & Glass, 2011).

Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis (“porous bone”) is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass, a loss of microarchitectural bone tissue, and a failure of the bone modulus (Cranney, Jamal, Tsang, Josse, & Leslie, 2007; Gardiner, El Miedany, & Toth, 2007; Osteoporosis Education, 2011). The individuals affected by this illness are susceptible to fracture.

In the United States, an estimated 44 million adults are living with either osteoporosis (ten million) or low bone mass (Osteoporosis Education, 2011; U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services PHS, 2004). Several risk factors can influence the development of osteoporosis, including age (older age), race...

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References and Readings

  1. Camacho, P. M., & Miller, P. D. (2007). Osteoporosis: A guide for clinicians. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  2. Cranney, A., Jamal, S. A., Tsang, J. F., Josse, R. G., & Leslie, W. D. (2007). Low bone mineral density and fracture burden in postmenopausal women. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal, 177(6), 575–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gardiner, A., El Miedany, Y., & Toth, M. (2007). Osteoporosis: Not only in women, but in men too. British Journal of Nursing, 16(12), 731–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. MacLean, C., Newberry, S., Maglione, M., et al. (2008). Systematic review: Comparative effectiveness of treatments to prevent fractures in men and women with low bone density or osteoporosis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(3), 197–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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  6. National Osteoporosis Foundation. (2011a). Prevalence report. Accessed October 15, 2011, from http://www.nof.org/advocacy/resources/prevalencereport
  7. National Osteoporosis Foundation. (2011b). Diagnosing osteoporosis. Accessed May 20, 2011, from http://www.nof.org/aboutosteoporosis/detectingosteoporosis/diagnosing
  8. National Osteoporosis Foundation. (n.d.). Having a bone density test. Accessed August 15, 2011, from http://www.nof.org/aboutosteoporosis/detectingosteoporosis/bmdtest
  9. Osteoporosis Education. (2011). About osteoporosis: Fast facts 2011. Accessed May 20, 2011, from http://www.nof.org/node/40
  10. Qaseem, A., Snow, V., Shekelle, P., et al. (2008). Screening for osteoporosis in men: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(9), 680–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rochira, V., Balestrieri, A., Madeo, B., Zirilli, L., Granata, A. R., & Carani, C. (2006). Osteoporosis and male age-related hypogonadism: Role of sex steroids on bone (patho)physiology. European Journal of Endocrinology, 154(2), 175–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Szulc, P. (2006). Bone density, geometry, and fracture in elderly men. Current Osteoporosis Reports, 4(2), 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. The North American Menopause Society. (2010). Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause, 17(1), 25–54. Quiz 55-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Torpy, J. M., Lynm, C., & Glass, R. M. (2011). Osteopenia and preventing fractures. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(21), 2644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services PHS, Office of the Surgeon General. (2004). Bone health and osteoporosis: A report of the surgeon general. Accessed August 22, 2011, from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth/content.html

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of NursingUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA