Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Hitachi Zosen Inova Technology

  • Craig Kedrowski
  • Peter Chromec
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_398

Definition of the Subject and Its Importance

Traditionally, waste has been landfilled – and still is today, when cost is the main criterion for waste management (Fig. 1). “Out-of-sight, out-of-mind” has been the early concept, before science provided a more complete picture of the effects of landfilling on land, water, and air for a long time after a landfill has been filled [ 1]. The primary reason for these effects is the continuing decomposition of organic waste compound s into methane and other gases that escape to the air, or to water-soluble compounds that dissolve in rainwater percolating through the waste and may contaminate surface and groundwater.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Kjeldsen P, Barlaz MA, Rooker AP, Baun A, Ledin A, Christensen TH (2002) Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: a review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 32(4):297–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaufman SM, Themelis NJ (2009) Using a direct method to characterize and measure flows of municipal solid waste in the United States. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 59:1386–1390. doi:10.3155/1047-3289.59.12.1386, ISSN:1047-3289; Copyright 2009 Air & Waste Management Association, Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    European Environment Agency (2007) Sustainable consumption and production. In: State of the environment report no 1/2007 (Chap 6). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/state_of_environment_report_2007_1
  4. 4.
    Sigg F, Halter R, Chromec P (2010) DyNOR® DeNOx performance confirmed in further MSW plants, NAWTEC18-3504. In: Proceedings of the 18th annual North American waste-to-energy conference, Orlando. Copyright 2010 by ASMEGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Directive 2000/76/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the Incineration of Waste, 28.12.2000, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 332/91Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    US Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (Title 40, Part 60, Subpart Eb) current as of 29 July 2010Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reimann DO (2004–2007) Results of specific data for energy, R1 plant efficiency factor and net calorific value (NCV) of 231 European WtE plants. In: CEWEP Energy Report II (Status 2004–2007). http://www.cewep.eu/studies/climate-protection/index.html

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hitachi Zosen Inova U.S.A. LLCNorcrossUSA