Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts


This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20–30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC) – as an advanced and promising reactor system that offers solutions to the above problems. The difference (not confrontation) between the approaches to nuclear power development based on the principles of “inherent safety” and “natural safety” is demonstrated.


Fast Reactor Fuel Assembly Fuel Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cycle Light Water Reactor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Advanced BWR


Advanced LWR


Argonne National Laboratory


AREVA New Technology based on Advanced gas-cooled Reactor for Energy Supply


Advanced PWR


Anticipated transient without scram


Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor


Breeding ratio


Lead-cooled Fast Reactor of Natural Safety


Boiling water reactor


Core breeding ratio


Core disruptive accident


Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor


Closed fuel cycle


Control and protection system


Clinch River Breeder Reactor


Dounreay Fast Reactor


Experimental Breeder Reactor


Emergency core cooling system


European Pressurized Reactor


Economic simplified boiling water reactor


Fuel assemblies


Fast Breeder Test Reactor


Fast critical assembly


Fast Flux Test Facility


Fission product


Fast reactor


Gas-cooled fast reactor


Generation IV International Forum


Gas turbine-modular helium reactor


Hypothetical core disruptive accident


Helium ENgineering DEmonstration Loop


High temperature gas-cooled reactor


10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor


HTR-10 with gas turbine


High temperature reactor-pebble-bed module


High temperature engineering test reactor


International Atomic Energy Agency


Impulse graphite reactor


International nuclear event scale


Irradiated nuclear fuel


In-containment refueling water storage tank




Kompakte Natriumgekühlte Kernreaktoranlage


Lead-cooled fast reactor


Loss-of-coolant accident


Light water reactor


Minor actinide


Modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor


Mixed oxide


Molten-salt breeder reactor


Molten-salt reactor


Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment


Neutron excess


National Nuclear Center


Nuclear power plant


Nuclear Regulatory Commission


Potential biological hazard


Pebble bed modular reactor


Prototype fast breeder reactor


Prototype fast reactor


Plutonium Uranium Recovery by EXtraction


Pressurized water reactor


Self-actuated shutdown system


Simplified boiling water reactor


Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System


Supercritical-water-cooled reactor


Southwest Experiment Fast Oxide Reactor


Sodium-cooled fast reactor


Schneller Natriumgekühlter Reaktor


Thorium high-temperature reactor




Unprotected LOss of Flow


Unprotected transient over power


Very high temperature gas reactor


Very high temperature reactor critical assembly



Prof. Y. Fuji-ie is grateful to Mr. Shoji Kotake and Mr. Nariaki Uto for their support through his contributing part of the chapter especially for the section on sodium-cooled fast reactor. The author is grateful also to Dr. Kazuo Arie, Dr. Masurou Ogawa, Dr. Kazuhiko Kunitomi and Dr. Kaoru Onuki for their contribution on HTGRs including valuable discussion on advanced nuclear energy system.

Prof. E. Adamov would like to thank Prof. V. Orlov and Drs. V. Smirnov, A. Lopatkin, and A. Dzhalavyan for their significant contribution to this chapter.

The chapter could not be completed without their contributions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET)MoscowRussia
  2. 2.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

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