Skip to main content

99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

  • Reference work entry
Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry

Abstract

This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4−x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section has a focus on coordination and labeling chemistry, but biological results are briefly summarized as well. The last (and shortest) section finally intends to give a (subjective) outlook for the future role of 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. Critical comments are spread over the whole article but are concentrated in this section. Despite the increasing competition of diagnostic radiopharmacy by other commonly applied methods in medicine such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound, the authors are convinced that 99mTc will play a key role also in future if novel approaches are added and the requirements from chemistry biology and the market considered in research to a stronger extent.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 1,599.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 3,499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abrams MJ, Brenner D, Davison A, Jones AG (1983) Inorg Chim A-Lett 77:L127

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Abrams MJ, Juweid M, Tenkate CI, Schwartz DA, Hauser MM, Gaul FE, Fuccello AJ, Rubin RH, Strauss HW, Fischman AJ (1990) J Nucl Med 31:2022

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alberto R, Ortner K, Wheatley N, Schibli R, Schubiger AP (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:3135

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alberto R, Pak JK, van Staveren D, Mundwiler S, Benny P (2004) Biopolymers 76:324

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alberto R, Schibli R, Egli A, Abram U, Herrmann WA, Schubiger PA (1994) Low CO pressure synthesis of (NEt4)(MXX3(CO)3) (M=Tc,Re) and its substitution behaviour in water and organic solvents. In: Nicolini M, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, vol 4. Cortina International, Milano

    Google Scholar 

  • Alberto R, Schibli R, Schubiger AP, Abram U, Pietzsch HJ, Johannsen B (1999) J Am Chem Soc 121:6076

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alberto R, Schibli R, Abram U, Hubener R, Berke H, Kaden TA, Schubiger PA (1996) J Chem Soc Chem Comm 1291

    Google Scholar 

  • Ali FE, Bennett DB, Calvo RR, Elliott JD, Hwang SM, Ku TW, Lago MA, Nichols AJ, Romoff TT, Shah DH, Vasko JA, Wong AS, Yellin TO, Yuan CK, Samanen JM (1994) J Med Chem 37:769

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson CJ, Dehdashti F, Cutler PD, Schwarz SW, Laforest R, Bass LA, Lewis JS, Mccarthy DW (2001) J Nucl Med 42:213

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baidoo KE (1995) J Nucl Med 42:S150

    Google Scholar 

  • Baidoo KE, Lin KS, Zhan YG, Finley P, Scheffel U, Wagner HN (1998) Bioconjug Chem 9:218

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bandoli G, Mazzi U, Roncari E (1982) Coordin Chem Rev 44:191

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee S, Pillai MRA, Ramamoorthy N (2001) Semin Nucl Med 31:260

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee SR, Maresca KP, Francesconi L, Valliant J, Babich JW, Zubieta J (2005) Nucl Med Biol 32:1

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee SR, Lazarova N, Wei L, Levadala MK, Maresca KP, Valliant JF, Babich JW, Zubieta JA (2003) J Nucl Med 44:50p

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartholoma M, Valliant J, Maresca KP, Babich J, Zubieta J (2009) Chem Commun 5:493

    Google Scholar 

  • Baumgärtner F (1961) Kerntechnik, Isotopentechnik und Chemie 297

    Google Scholar 

  • Baumgärtner F, Fischer EO, Zahn U (1962) Naturwissenschaften 49:156

    Google Scholar 

  • Blaufox MD (1987) Contrib Nephrol 56:31

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blaufox MD (1991) J Nucl Med 32:1301

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bolzati C, Boschi A, Duatti A, Prakash S, Uccelli L (2000a) J Am Chem Soc 122:4510

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bolzati C, Uccelli L, Boschi A, Malago E, Duatti A, Tisato F, Refosco F, Pasqualini R, Piffanelli A (2000b) Nucl Med Biol 27:369

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bormans G, Peeters OM, Vanbilloen H, Blaton N, Verbruggen A (1996) Inorg Chim Acta 35:6240

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bormans GM, Cleynhen BJ, Deroo MJK, Verbruggen AM (1992) Eur J Nucl Med 19:271

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boschi A, Bolzati C, Benini E, Malago E, Uccelli L, Duatti A, Piffanelli A, Refosco F, Tisato F (2001) Bioconjug Chem 12:1035

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boschi A, Uccelli L, Bolzati C, Duatti A, Sabba N, Moretti E, Di Domenico G, Zavattini G, Refosco F, Giganti M (2003) J Nucl Med 44:806

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bossuyt A, Morgan GF, Deblaton M, Pirotte R, Chirico A, Clemens P, Vandenbroeck P, Thornback JR (1991) J Nucl Med 32:399

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brandau W, Bubeck B, Eisenhut M, Taylor DM (1988) Appl Radiat Isot 39:121

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Breeman WAP, Hofland LJ, de Jong M, Bernard BF, Srinivasan A, Kwekkeboom DJ, Visser TJ, Krenning EP (1999a) Int J Cancer 81:658

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Breeman WAP, de Jong M, Bernard BF, Kwekkeboom DJ, Srinivasan A, van der Pluijm ME, Hofland LJ, Visser TJ, Krenning EP (1999b) Int J Cancer 83:657

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brenner D, Davison A, Listerjames J, Jones AG (1984) Inorg Chem 23:3793

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brodie BB, Hogben CAM (1957) J Pharm Pharmacol 9:345

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bullok KE, Dyszlewski M, Prior JL, Pica CM, Sharma V, Piwnica-Worms D (2002) Bioconjug Chem 13:1226

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Callahan RJ, Dragotakes SC, Barrow SA, Burker MA, Tokareva EA, Fischman AJ (2001) J Nucl Med 42:268

    Google Scholar 

  • Cesati RR, Tamagnan G, Baldwin RM, Zoghbi SS, Innis RB, Katzenellenbogen JA (1999) J Labelled Compd Rad 42:S150

    Google Scholar 

  • Chaplin SB, Oberle PO, Hoffman TJ, Volkert WA, Holmes RA, Nowotnik DP, Pickett RD, Neirinckx R (1985) J Nucl Med 26:P18

    Google Scholar 

  • Chi DY, Katzenellenbogen JA (1993) J Am Chem Soc 115:7045

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chi DY, Oneil JP, Anderson CJ, Welch MJ, Katzenellenbogen JA (1994) J Med Chem 37:928

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Collins DA, Hogenkamp HPC (1997) J Nucl Med 38:717

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Collins DA, Hogenkamp HPC, Gebhard MW (1999) Mayo Clin Proc 74:687

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Colombo FR, Torrente Y, Casati R, Benti R, Corti S, Salani S, D’angelo MG, Deliso A, Scarlato G, Bresolin N, Gerundini P (2001) Nucl Med Biol 28:935

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cotton FA, Wilkinson G (1988) Advanced inorganic chemistry, 5th edn. Wiley-Interscience, New York, p 817

    Google Scholar 

  • Crankshaw CL, Marmion M, Luker GD, Rao V, Dahlheimer J, Burleigh BD, Webb E, Deutsch KF, Piwnica-Worms D (1998) J Nucl Med 39:77

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Davison A, Jones AG, Orvig C, Sohn M (1981) Inorg Chem 20:1629

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • De Jong M, Breeman WAP, Bernard HF (1999) Q J Nucl Med 43:356

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • de Jong M, Bernard BF, de Bruin E, van Gameren A, Bakker WH, Visser TJ, Macke HR, Krenning EP (1998) Nucl Med Commun 19:283

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Despopoulos A (1965) J Theor Biol 8:163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Deutsch E, Ketring AR, Libson K, Vanderheyden J-L, Hirth WW (1989) Nucl Med Biol 16:191

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Deutsch E, Glavan KA, Sodd VJ, Nishiyama H, Ferguson DL, Lukes SJ (1981a) J Nucl Med 22:897

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Deutsch E, Bushong W, Glavan KA, Elder RC, Sodd VJ, Scholz KL, Fortman DL, Lukes SJ (1981b) Science 214:85

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dilworth JR, Parrott SJ (1998) Chem Soc Rev 27:43

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dirocco RJ, Kuczynski BL, Pirro JP, Bauer A, Linder KE, Ramalingam K, Cyr JE, Chan YW, Raju N, Narra RK, Nowotnik DP, Nunn AD (1993) J Cerebr Blood F Met 13:755

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dischino DD, Welch MJ, Kilbourn MR, Raichle ME (1983) J Nucl Med 24:1030

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Drews A, Heimbold I, Hall H, Halldin C, Pietzsch HJ, Syhre R, Seifert S, Brust P, Johannsen B (2001) J Labelled Compd Rad 44:S544

    Google Scholar 

  • Drews A, Pietzsch HJ, Syhre R, Seifert S, Varnas K, Hall H, Halldin C, Kraus W, Karlsson P, Johnsson C, Spies H, Johannsen B (2002) Nucl Med Biol 29:389

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eckelman WC, Richards P, Meinken G (1972) J Nucl Med 13:577

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Edwards DS, Cheesman EH, Watson MW, Maheu LJ, Nguyen SA, Dimitre L, Nason T, Watson AD, Walovitch R (1990) In: Nicolini M, Bandoli G, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, vol 3. Cortina International Raven Press, Verona/New York, p 433

    Google Scholar 

  • Egli A, Alberto R, Tannahill L, Schibli R, Abram U, Schaffland A, Waibel R, Tourwe D, Jeannin L, Iterbeke K, Schubiger PA (1999) J Nucl Med 40:1913

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ell PJ, Jarritt PH, Cullum I, Hocknell JML, Costa DC, Lui D, Jewkes RF, Steiner TJ, Nowotnik DP, Pickett RD, Neirinckx RD (1985) Lancet 2:50

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Epps LA, Burns HD, Lever SZ, Goldfarb HW, Wagner HN (1987) Appl Radiat Isot 38:661

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eshima D, Fritzberg AR, Taylor A (1990) Semin Nucl Med 20:28

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eshima D, Taylor A, Fritzberg AR, Kasina S, Hansen L, Sorenson JF (1987) J Nucl Med 28:1180

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fichna J, Janecka A (2003) Bioconjug Chem 14:3

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fischmann AJ, Meltzer P, Hillier S, Barrow SA, Callahan RJ, Bonab AA, Madras BK (1999) Eur J Nucl Med 26:982

    Google Scholar 

  • Fritzberg A (1984) J Nucl Med Technol 12:177

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fritzberg AR, Kasina S, Eshima D, Johnson DL (1986) J Nucl Med 27:111

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fritzberg AR, Kuni CC, Klingensmith WC, Stevens J, Whitney WP (1982) J Nucl Med 23:592

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gali H, Hoffmann TJ, Sieckman GL, Owen NK, Katti KV, Volkert WA (2001) Bioconjug Chem 12:354

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Garcia-Garayoa E, Blauenstein P, Bruehlmeier M, Blanc A, Iterbeke K, Conrath P, Tourwe D, Schubiger PA (2002) J Nucl Med 43:374

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Garcia-Garayoa E, Allemann-Tannahill L, Blauenstein P, Willmann M, Carrel-Remy N, Tourwe D, Iterbeke K, Conrath P, Schubiger PA (2001) Nucl Med Biol 28:75

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ghezzi C, Fagret D, Arvieux CC, Mathieu JP, Bontron R, Pasqualini R, Deleiris J, Comet M (1995) J Nucl Med 36:1069

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grummon G, Rajagopalan R, Palenik GJ, Koziol AE, Nosco DL (1995) Inorg Chem 34:1764

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta NK, Bomanji JB, Waddington W, Lui D, Costa DC, Verbruggen AM, Ell PJ (1995) Eur J Nucl Med 22:617

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen L, Cini R, Taylor A, Marzilli LG (1992) Inorg Chem 31:2801

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen L, Marzilli LG, Eshima D, Malveaux EJ, Folks R, Taylor A (1994) J Nucl Med 35:1198

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harbert JC, Andrich MP, Peller PJ (1996) In: Harbert JC, Eckelman WC, Neumann RD (eds) Nuclear medicine: diagnosis and therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, p 713

    Google Scholar 

  • He Z, Hsieh W-Y, Kim Y-S, Liu S (2006) Nucl Med Biol 33:1045

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heimbold I, Drews A, Syhre R, Kretzschmar M, Pietzsch HJ, Johannsen B (2002) Eur J Nucl Med 29:82

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heppeler A, Froidevaux S, Eberle AN, Maecke HR (2000) Curr Med Chem 7:971

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Higley B, Smith FW, Smith T, Gemmell HG, Dasgupta P, Gvozdanovic DV, Graham D, Hinge D, Davidson J, Lahiri A (1993) J Nucl Med 34:30

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hirsch-Kuchma M, Nicholson T, Davison A, Jones AG (1997) J Chem Soc Dalton 3:3189

    Google Scholar 

  • Hirschkuchma M, Nicholson T, Davison A, Davis WM, Jones AG (1997) Inorg Chem 36:3237

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoepping A, Reisgys M, Brust P, Seifert S, Spies H, Alberto R, Johannsen B (1998) J Med Chem 41:4429

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman TJ, Quinn TP, Volkert WA (2001) Nucl Med Biol 28:527

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman TJ, Seger RM, Mckenzie EH, Volkert WA, Holmes RA, Pettit RP, Canning L, Cumming SA, Nechvatal G (1985) J Nucl Med 26:P129

    Google Scholar 

  • Holman BL, Sporn V, Jones AG, Sia STB, Perezbalino N, Davison A, Listerjames J, Kronauge JF, Mitta AEA, Camin LL, Campbell S, Williams SJ, Carpenter AT (1987) J Nucl Med 28:13

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Holmes RA, Chaplin SB, Royston KG, Hoffman TJ, Volkert WA, Nowotnik DP, Canning LR, Cumming SA, Harrison RC, Higley B, Nechvatal G, Pickett RD, Piper IM, Neirinckx RD (1985) Nucl Med Commun 6:443

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hom RK, Katzenellenbogen JA (1997a) J Org Chem 62:6290

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hom RK, Katzenellenbogen JA (1997b) Nucl Med Biol 24:485

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hom RK, Chi DY, Katzenellenbogen JA (1996) J Org Chem 61:2624

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson S, Degrado W, Dwivedi A, Parthasarathy A, Higley A, Krywko J, Rockwell A, Markwalder J, Wells G, Wexler R, Mousa S, Harlow R (1994) J Am Chem Soc 116:3220

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jain D (1999) Semin Nucl Med 29:221

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jain D, Wackers FJT, Mattera J, Mcmahon M, Sinusas AJ, Zaret BL (1993) J Nucl Med 34:1254

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • James S, Maresca KP, Babich JW, Valliant JF, Doering L, Zubieta J (2006a) Bioconjug Chem 17:590

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • James S, Maresca KP, Allis DG, Valliant JF, Eckelman W, Babich JW, Zubieta J (2006b) Bioconjug Chem 17:579

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jaouen G, Top S, Vessières A, Alberto R (2000) J Organomet Chem 600:23

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jaouen G, Top S, Vessières A, Pigeon P, Leclercq G, Laios I (2001) Chem Commun 383

    Google Scholar 

  • Johannsen B, Pietzsch HJ (2002) Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 29:263

    Google Scholar 

  • Johannsen B, Noll B, Leibnitz P, Reck G, Noll S, Spies H (1993) Inorg Chim Acta 210:209

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson G, Nguyen KN, Pasqualini R, Okada RD (1997) J Nucl Med 38:138

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson G, Nguyen KN, Liu ZG, Okada RD (1998) J Nucl Cardiol 5:285

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones AG, Abrams MJ, Davison A, Brodack JW, Toothaker AK, Adelstein SJ, Kassis AI (1984) Int J Nucl Med Biol 11:225

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jurisson S, Berning D, Jia W, Ma DS (1993) Chem Rev 93:1137

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jurisson S, Schlemper EO, Troutner DE, Canning LR, Nowotnik DP, Neirinckx RD (1986) Inorg Chem 25:543

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jurisson SS, Lxdon JD (1999) Chem Rev 99:2205

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jurisson SS, Hirth W, Linder KE, Dirocco RJ, Narra RK, Nowotnik DP, Nunn AD (1991) Nucl Med Biol 18:735

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Karra SR, Schibli R, Gali H, Katti KV, Hoffman TJ, Higginbotham C, Sieckman GL, Volkert WA (1999) Bioconjug Chem 10:254

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Katzenellenbogen JA, Welch MJ, Dehdashti F (1997) Anticancer Res 17:1573

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kaul S, Boucher CA, Newell JB, Chesler DA, Greenberg JM, Okada RD, Strauss HW, Dinsmore RE, Pohost GM (1986) J Am Coll Cardiol 7:527

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly JD, Higly B, Archer CM, AL E (1990) Technetium-99m complexes of functionalised diphosphines for myocardial imaging. In: Nicolini M, Bandoli G, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium and rhenium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, vol 3. Cortina International, Verona, p 405

    Google Scholar 

  • Kempf CR, Clark HM, Aikens DA, Bailey RA, Bunce SC, Applebaum G (1980) J Nucl Med 21:402

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kniess T, Spies H, Brandau W, Johannsen B (1998) J Labelled Compd Rad 41:605

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Krenning EP, Kwekkeboom DJ, Bakker WH, Breeman WAP, Kooij PPM, Oei HY, Vanhagen M, Postema PTE, Dejong M, Reubi JC, Visser TJ, Reijs AEM, Hofland LJ, Koper JW, Lamberts SWJ (1993) Eur J Nucl Med 20:716

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kronauge JF, Barbarics E, Davison A, Jones AG (1993) J Labelled Compd Rad 32:62

    Google Scholar 

  • Kung HF (2001) Nucl Med Biol 28:505

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kung HF, Ohmomo Y, Kung MP (1990) Semin Nucl Med 20:290

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kung HF, Kung MP, Choi SR (2003) Semin Nucl Med 33:2

    Google Scholar 

  • Kung HF, Guo YZ, Yu CC, Billings J, Subramanyam V, Calabrese JC (1989) J Med Chem 32:433

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kung MP, Stevenson DA, Plossl K, Meegalla SK, Beckwith A, Essman WD, Mu M, Lucki I, Kung HF (1997) Eur J Nucl Med 24:372

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kunze S, Zobi F, Kurz P, Spingler B, Alberto R (2004) Angew Chem Int Ed 43:5025

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • La Bella R, Garcia-Garayoa E, Bahler M, Blauenstein P, Schibli R, Conrath P, Tourwe D, Schubiger PA (2002) Bioconjug Chem 13:599

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lahiri A, Highley B, Crawley JCW (1989) J Nucl Med 30:818

    Google Scholar 

  • Lamberts SWJ (1988) Endocr Rev 9:417

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Langer M, La Bella R, Garcia-Garayoa E, Beck-Sickinger AG (2001) Bioconjug Chem 12:1028

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Larsen SK, Solomon HF, Caldwell G, Abrams MJ (1995) Bioconjug Chem 6:635

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lebedeva LI, Kyong K (1968) Vestnik Leningrad Univ 23:127

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Leonard JP, Nowotnik DP, Neirinckx RD (1986) J Nucl Med 27:1819

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lever SZ, Burns HD, Kervitsky TM, Goldfarb HW, Woo DV, Wong DF, Epps LA, Kramer AV, Wagner HN (1985) J Nucl Med 26:1287

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Libson K, Messa C, Kwiatkowski M, Al E (1990) Development of new 99mTc myocardial perfusion imaging agents. In: Nicolini M, Bandoli G, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium and rhenium in chemistry and nuclear medicine. Cortina International, Verona, p 365

    Google Scholar 

  • Linder KE, Malley MF, Gougoutas JZ, Unger SE, Nunn AD (1990) Inorg Chem 29:2428

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Linder KE, Nowotnik DP, Malley MF, Gougoutas JZ, Nunn AD (1991) Inorg Chim Acta 190:249

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Linder KE, Chan YW, Cyr JE, Malley MF, Nowotnik DP, Nunn AD (1994) J Med Chem 37:9

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Listerjames J, Knight LC, Maurer AH, Bush LR, Moyer BR, Dean RT (1996) J Nucl Med 37:775

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu M, Xu W, Xu LJ, Zhong GR, Chen SL, Lu WY (2005) Bioconjug Chem 16:1126

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu S (2007) Dalton T 1183

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, Edwards DS (1999) Chem Rev 99:2235

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, Edwards DS, Harris AR (1998a) Bioconjug Chem 9:583

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, Edwards DS, Harris AR (1998b) J Nucl Med 39:215

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, He ZJ, Hsieh WY, Kim YS (2006) Nucl Med Biol 33:419

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, Edwards DS, Looby RJ, Harris AR, Poirier MJ, Barrett JA, Heminway SJ, Carroll TR (1996) Bioconjug Chem 7:63

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lo KKW, Hui WK (2005) Inorg Chem 44:1992

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Madras BK, Jones AG, Mahmood A, Zimmerman RE, Garada B, Holman BL, Davison A, Blundell P, Meltzer PC (1996) Synapse 22:239

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mahmood A, Kronauge JF, Barbarics E, Freiberg E, Madras BK, Li J, Davison A, Jones AG (1999) Technetium(V) and rhenium(V) analogues of WAY 100,635 5HT1A receptor-binding complexes. In: Nicolini M, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium, rhenium and other metals in chemistry and nuclear medicine. SGE Editoriali, Padova, p 393

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahmoud S, Staley J, Taylor J, Bogden A, Moreau JP, Coy D, Avis I, Cuttitta F, Mulshine JL, Moody TW (1991) Cancer Res 51:1798

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mallo L, León A, Papadopoulos M, Manta E, Rey A, León E, Pirmettis I, Raptopoulou C, Chiotellis E (1999) Preliminary evaluation of a novel 99mTc complex for imaging 5ht1A serotonine receptors. In: Nicolini M, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium, rhenium and other metals in chemistry and nuclear medicine. SGE Editoriali, Padova, p 503

    Google Scholar 

  • Maria L, Cunha S, Videira M, Gano L, Paulo A, Santos IC, Santos I (2007) Dalton Trans 28:3010

    Google Scholar 

  • Maria L, Fernandes C, Garcia R, Gano L, Paulo A, Santos IC, Santos I (2009) Dalton Trans 4:603

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin GV, Caldwell JH, Graham MM, Grierson JR, Kroll K, Cowan MJ, Lewellen TK, Rasey JS, Casciari JJ, Krohn KA (1992) J Nucl Med 33:2202

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meegalla S, Plossl K, Kung MP, Svenson DA, Liablesands LM, Rheingold AL, Kung HF (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:11037

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meegalla S, Plössl K, Kung M-P, Chumpradit S, Stevenson DA, Frederick D, Kung HF (1996) Bioconjug Chem 7:421

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meegalla SK, Plössl K, Kung M-P, Chumpradit S, Stevenson DA, Kushner SA, Mcelgin WT, Mozley PD, Kung HF (1997) J Med Chem 40:9

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meegalla SK, Plossl K, Kung MP, Stevenson DA, Mu M, Kushner S, Liable-Sands LM, Reingold AL, Kung HF (1998) J Med Chem 41:428

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meltzer PC, Blundell P, Madras BK, Fischman AJ, Jones AG, Mahomood A (2000) European Patent Applications 56

    Google Scholar 

  • Minutolo F, Katzenellenbogen JA (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:4514

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Minutolo F, Katzenellenbogen JA (1999) Angew Chem Int Ed 38:1617

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Moody TW, Perry DC (1989) In: Williams M, Glennon RA, Timmermans PBMWM (eds) Receptor pharmacology and function. Marcell Dekker, New York, p 527

    Google Scholar 

  • Morgan GF, Deblaton M, Clemens P, Vandenbroeck P, Bossuyt A, Thornback JR (1991) J Nucl Med 32:500

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mozley PD, Stubbs JB, Plossl K, Dresel SH, Barraclough ED, Alavi A, Araujo LI, Kung HF (1998) J Med Chem 39:2069

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mozley PD, Acton PD, Barraclough ED, Plossl K, Gur RC, Alavi A, Mathur A, Saffer J, Kung HF (1999) J Nucl Med 40:1812

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Muller C, Schubiger PA, Schibli R (2007) Nucl Med Biol 34:595

    Google Scholar 

  • Muller C, Bruhlmeier M, Schubiger PA, Schibli R (2006a) J Nucl Med 47:2057

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Muller C, Hohn A, Schubiger PA, Schibli R (2006b) Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 33:1007

    Google Scholar 

  • Muto P, Lastoria S, Varrella P, Vergara E, Salvatore M, Morgano G, Listerjames J, Bernardy JD, Dean RT, Wencker D, Borer JS (1995) J Nucl Med 36:1384

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Narahara KA, Villanuevameyer J, Thompson CJ, Brizendine M, Mena I (1990) Am J Cardiol 66:1438

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Narra RK, Nunn AD, Kuczynski BL, Feld T, Wedeking P, Eckelman WC (1989) J Nucl Med 30:1830

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Narra RK, Nunn AD, Kuczynski BL, Dirocco RJ, Feld T, Silva DA, Eckelman WC (1990) J Nucl Med 31:1370

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Neirinckx RD, Canning LR, Piper IM, Nowotnik DP, Pickett RD, Holmes RA, Volkert WA, Forster AM, Weisner PS, Marriott JA, Chaplin SB (1987) J Nucl Med 28:191

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nicholson T, Cook J, Davison A, Rose DJ, Maresca KP, Zubieta JA, Jones AG (1996a) Inorg Chim Acta 252:421

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nicholson T, Cook J, Davison A, Rose DJ, Maresca KP, Zubieta JA, Jones AG (1996b) Inorg Chim Acta 252:427

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nock B, Nikolopoulou A, Chiotellis E, Loudos G, Maintas D, Reubi JC, Maina T (2003) Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30:247

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nosco DL, Beaty-Nosco JA (1999) Coordin Chem Rev 184:91

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nowotnik DP, Canning LR, Cumming A, Harrison RC, Higley B, Nechvatal G, Pickett RD, Piper IM, Bayne VJ, Forster AM, Weisner PS, Neirinckx RD, Volkert WA, Troutner DE, Holmes RA (1985) Nucl Med Commun 6:499

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nunn AD (1992) Single photon radiopharmaceuticals for imaging myocardial perfusion. In: Nunn AD (ed) Radiopharmaceuticals: chemistry and pharmacology. Marcell Dekker, New York, p 97

    Google Scholar 

  • Okarvi SM, Jammaz IA (2006) Cancer Biother Radiopharm 21:49

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ono M, Arano Y, Mukai T, Uehara T, Fujioka Y, Ogawa K, Namba S, Nakayama M, Saga T, Konishi J, Horiuchi K, Yokoyama A, Saji H (2001) Nucl Med Biol 28:155

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Otte A, Jermann E, Behe M, Goetze M, Bucher HC, Roser HW, Heppeler A, Muellerbrand J, Maecke HR (1997) Eur J Nucl Med 24:792

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oya S, Kung MP, Stevenson DA, Kung HF (1996) J Nucl Med 37:870

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker N, Turk MJ, Westrick E, Lewis JD, Low PS, Leamon CP (2005) Anal Biochem 338:284

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pasqualini R, Duatti A (1992) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 1354

    Google Scholar 

  • Pasqualini R, Duatti A, Bellande E, Comazzi V, Brucato V, Hoffschir D, Fagret D, Comet M (1994) J Nucl Med 35:334

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pearson DA, Lister-James J, Mcbride WJ, Wilson DM, Martel LJ, Civitello ER, Dean RT (1996) J Med Chem 39:1372

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pietzsch HJ, Spies H, Hoffmann S (1989) Inorg Chim Acta 165:163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pietzsch HJ, Spies H, Hoffmann S, Scheller D (1990) Appl Radiat Isot 41:185

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pillai MRA, John CS, Lo JM, Troutner DE (1990) Appl Radiat Isot 41:557

    Google Scholar 

  • Piwnicaworms D, Chiu ML, Budding M, Kronauge JF, Kramer RA, Croop JM (1993) Cancer Res 53:977

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Plössl K, Zhuang ZP, Meegalla SK, Bradshaw J, Frederick D, Stevenson DA, Kung MP, Kung HF (1995) J Labelled Compd Rad 37:306

    Google Scholar 

  • Ponto JA, Chilton HM, Watson NA Jr (1990) In: Swanson DP, Chilton HM, Thrall JH (eds) Pharmaceuticals in medical imaging. MacMillan, New York, p 501

    Google Scholar 

  • Qin YF, Ertl T, Cai RZ, Halmos G, Schally AV (1994) Cancer Res 54:1035

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Qin YF, Ertl T, Cai RZ, Horvath JE, Groot K, Schally AV (1995) Int J Cancer 63:257

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ramalingam K, Raju N, Nanjappan P, Linder KE, Pirro J, Zeng W, Rumsey W, Nowotnik DP, Nunn AD (1994) J Med Chem 37:4155

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rao TN, Adhikesavalu D, Camerman A, Fritzberg AR (1990) J Am Chem Soc 112:5798

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reubi JC, Waser B, Schaer JC, Laissue JA (1999) Int J Cancer 82:213

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reubi JC, Waser B, Friess H, Buchler M, Laissue J (1998) Gut 42:546

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Richards P (1960) VII Rassegna Internationale Elettronica e Nucleare. Roma, Atti Ufficiali, 223

    Google Scholar 

  • Riou L, Ghezzi C, Mouton O, Mathieu JP, Pasqualini R, Comet M, Fagret D (1998) Circulation 98:2591

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers BE, Brechbiel MW, Kirkman RL, Clarkson M, Buchsbaum DJ (1999) In vitro binding and internalization of an Indium-111 labeled bombesin derivative to cells expressing the gastrin releasing peptide receptor. In: Nicolini M, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium, rhenium and other metals in chemistry and nuclear medicine. SGE Editoriali, Padova, p 519

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogers BE, Curiel DT, Mayo MS, Laffoon KK, Bright SJ, Buchsbaum DJ (1997) Cancer 80:2419

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rose DJ, Maresca KP, Nicholson T, Davison A, Jones AG, Babich J, Fischman A, Graham W, Debord JRD, Zubieta J (1998) Inorg Chem 37:2701

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rossetti C, Vanoli G, Paganelli G, Kwiatkowski M, Zito F, Colombo F, Bonino C, Carpinelli A, Casati R, Deutsch K, Marmion M, Woulfe SR, Lunghi F, Deutsch E, Fazio F (1994) J Nucl Med 35:1571

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sands H, Delano ML, Camin LL, Gallagher BM (1985) Biochim Biophys Acta 812:665

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schaefer WM, Moka D, Brockmann HA, Schomaecker K, Schicha H (2002) Nucl Med Biol 29:243

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schaffer P, Gleave JA, Lemon JA, Reid LC, Pacey LKK, Farncombe TH, Boreham DR, Zubieta J, Babich JW, Doering LC, Valliant JF (2008) Nucl Med Biol 35:159

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schibli R, Katti KV, Higginbotham C, Volkert WA, Alberto R (1999) Nucl Med Biol 26:711

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schibli R, Bella RL, Alberto R, Garcia-Garayoa E, Ortner K, Abram U, Schubiger PA (2000) Bioconjug Chem 3:345

    Google Scholar 

  • Schibli R, Schwarzbach R, Alberto R, Ortner K, Schmalle H, Dumas C, Egli A, Schubiger PA (2002) Bioconjug Chem 13:750

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz DA, Abrams MJ, Hauser MM, Gaul FE, Larsen SK, Rauh D, Zubieta JA (1991) Bioconjug Chem 2:333

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarze SR, Hruska KA, Dowdy SF (2000) Trends Cell Biol 10:290

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Seifert S, Noll B, Münze R (1982) Int J Appl Radiat Isot 33:1391

    Google Scholar 

  • Seifert S, Syhre R, Gupta A, Spies H, Johannsen B (1999) Stability studies on “3+1” mixed-ligand technetium and rhenium complexes. In: Nicolini M, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium, rhenium and other metals in chemistry and nuclear medicine, vol 5. SGE Editoriali, Padova, p 687

    Google Scholar 

  • Seifert S, Pietzsch H-J, Scheunemann M, Spies H, Syhre R, Johannsen B (1997) Appl Radiat Isot 49:5

    Google Scholar 

  • Seifert S, Drews A, Gupta A, Pietzsch HJ, Spies H, Johannsen B (2000) Appl Radiat Isot 53:431

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Seldin DW, Johnson LL, Blood DK, Muschel MJ, Smith KF, Wall RM, Cannon PJ (1989) J Nucl Med 30:312

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sharp PF, Smith FW, Gemmell HG, Lyall D, Evans NTS, Gvozdanovic D, Davidson J, Tyrrell DA, Pickett RD, Neirinckx RD (1986) J Nucl Med 27:171

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sia STB, Holman BL, Mckusick K, Rigo P, Gillis F, Sporn V, Perezbalino N, Mitta A, Vosberg H, Szabo Z, Schwartzkopff B, Moretti JL, Davison A, Listerjames J, Jones A (1986) Eur J Nucl Med 12:333

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sivolapenko GB, Skarlos D, Pectasides D, Stathopoulou E, Milonakis A, Sirmalis G, Stuttle A, Courtenay-Luck NS, Konstantinides K, Epenetos AA (1998) Eur J Nucl Med 25:1383

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith CJ, Gali H, Sieckman GL, Higginbotham C, Volkert WA, Hoffman TJ (2003) Bioconjug Chem 14:93

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Spies H, Johannsen B (1981) Inorg Chim A-Article 48:255

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Spies H, Pietzsch HJ, Syhre R, Hoffmann S (1990) Isotopenpraxis 26:159

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Spies H, Fietz T, Pietzsch HJ, Johannsen B, Leibnitz P, Reck G, Scheller D, Klostermann K (1995) J Chem Soc Dalton 2277

    Google Scholar 

  • Spingler B, Mundwiler S, Ruiz-Sanchez P, van Staveren DR, Alberto R (2007) Eur J Inorg Chem 18:2641

    Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson KA, Reid LC, Zubieta J, Babich JW, Kung MP, Kung HF, Valliant JF (2008) Bioconjug Chem 19:1087

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson KA, Zubieta J, Banerjee SR, Levadala MK, Taggart L, Ryan L, Mcfarlane N, Boreham DR, Maresca KP, Babich JW, Valliant JF (2004) Bioconjug Chem 15:128

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Syhre R, Seifert S, Spies H, Gupta A, Johannsen B (1998) Eur J Nucl Med 25:793

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tatemoto K (1982) P Natl Acad Sci-Biol 79:5485

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Top S, Hafa HE, Vessières A, Quivy J, Vaissermann J, Hughes DD, Mcglinchey MJ, Mornon J-P, Thoreau E, Jaouen G (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:8372

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Treher EN, Francesconi LC, Gougoutas JZ, Malley MF, Nunn AD (1989) Inorg Chem 28:3411

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Troutner DE, Volkert WA, Hoffman TJ, Holmes RA (1984) Int J Appl Radiat Isot 35:467

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Trump DP, Mathias CJ, Yang ZF, Low PSW, Marmion M, Green MA (2002) Nucl Med Biol 29:569

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tucker WD, Greene MW, Weiss AJ, Murenhoff AP (1958) T Am Nucl Soc 1:160

    Google Scholar 

  • Uccelli L, Giganti M, Duatti A, Bolzati C, Pasqualini R, Cittanti C, Colamussi P, Piffanelli A (1995) J Nucl Med 36:2075

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vallabhajosula S, Moyer BR, Lister-James J, Mcbride BJ, Lipszyc H, Lee H, Bastidas D, Dean RT (1996) J Nucl Med 37:1016

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vallabhajosula S, Zimmerman RE, Picard M, Stritzke P, Mena I, Hellman RS, Tikofsky RS, Stabin MG, Morgan RA, Goldsmith SJ (1989) J Nucl Med 30:599

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Van De Wiele C, Dumont F, Vanden Broecke R, Oosterlinck W, Cocquyt V, Serreyn R, Peers S, Thornback J, Slegers G, Dierckx RA (2000) Eur J Nucl Med 27:1694

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Van Staveren DR, Waibel R, Mundwiler S, Schubiger PA, Alberto R (2004a) J Organomet Chem 689:4803

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Van Staveren DR, Mundwiler S, Hoffmanns U, Pak JK, Spingler B, Metzler-Nolte N, Alberto R (2004b) Org Biomol Chem 2:2593

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vanzetto G, Fagret D, Pasqualini R, Mathieu JP, Chossat F, Machecourt J (2000) J Nucl Med 41:141

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vanzetto G, Calnon DA, Ruiz M, Watson DD, Pasqualini R, Beller GA, Glover DK (1997) Circulation 96:2325

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Verbeke K, Hjelstuen O, Debrock E, Cleynhens B, Deroo M, Verbruggen A (1995) Nucl Med Commun 16:942

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Verbruggen A, Bormans G, Cleynhens B, Hoogmartens M, Vandecruys A, Deroo MJK (1989) J Labelled Compd Rad 26:436

    Google Scholar 

  • Verbruggen AM (1990) Eur J Nucl Med 17:346

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Verbruggen AM, Deroo MJK (1992) In: Nunn AD (ed) Radiopharmaceuticals: chemistry and pharmacology. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 365

    Google Scholar 

  • Verbruggen AM, Nosco DL, Vannerom CG, Bormans GM, Adriaens PJ, Deroo MJ (1992) J Nucl Med 33:551

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Villa M, Saccavini JC, Bardy A (1986) Dev Nucl Med 10:351

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Viola-Villegas N, Rabideau AE, Cesnavicious J, Zubieta J, Doyle RP (2008) Chem Med Chem 3:1387

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Virgolini I, Traub T, Novotny C, Leimer M, Fuger B, Li SR, Patri P, Pangerl T, Angelberger P, Raderer M, Andreae F, Kurtaran A, Dudczak R (2001) Q J Nucl Med 45:153

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Visser GWM, Gerretsen M, Herscheid JDM, Snow GB, Vandongen G (1993) J Nucl Med 34:1953

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wackers FJT, Sokole EB, Samson G, Schoot JBVD, Lie KI, Liem KL, Wellens HJJ (1976) N Engl J Med 295:1

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wackers FJT, Berman DS, Maddahi J, Watson DD, Beller GA, Strauss HW, Boucher CA, Picard M, Holman BL, Fridrich R, Inglese E, Delaloye B, Bischofdelaloye A, Camin L, Mckusick K (1989) J Nucl Med 30:301

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Waibel R, Alberto R, Willuda J, Finnern R, Schibli R, Stichelberger A, Egli A, Abram U, Mach JP, Pluckthun A, Schubiger PA (1999) Nat Biotechnol 17:897

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Waibel R, Treichler H, Schaefer NG, Van Staveren DR, Mundwiler S, Kunze S, Kuenzi M, Alberto R, Nuesch J, Knuth A, Moch H, Schibli R, Schubiger PA (2008) Cancer Res 68:2904

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wald J, Alberto R, Ortner K, Candreia L (2001) Angew Chem 113:3152

    Google Scholar 

  • Walovitch RC, Cheesman EH, Maheu LJ, Hall KM (1994) J Cerebr Blood F Met 14:S4

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Walovitch RC, Hill TC, Garrity ST, Cheesman EH, Burgess BA, Oleary DH, Watson AD, Ganey MV, Morgan RA, Williams SJ (1989) J Nucl Med 30:1892

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Walovitch RC, Makuch J, Garrity ST, Burgess BA, Morgan RA, Williams SJ, Leveille J, Donesuard J, Rigo P, Demonceau G, Cantineau R, Deroo MJK (1988) Neurology 38:363

    Google Scholar 

  • Wei LH, Babich J, Eckelman WC, Zubieta J (2005) Inorg Chem 44:2198

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wei LH, Babich JW, Ouellette W, Zubieta J (2006) Inorg Chem 45:3057

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weiner RE, Thakur ML (2002) Appl Radiat Isot 57:749

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wenzel M (1992) J Labelled Compd Rad 31:641

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wenzel M, Klinge C (1994) J Labelled Compd Rad 34:981

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wester DW, White DH, Miller FW, Dean RT, Schreifels JA, Hunt JE (1987) Inorg Chim Acta 131:163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wong E, Bennett S, Lawrence B, Fauconnier T, Lu LFL, Bell RA, Thornback JR, Eshima D (2001) Inorg Chem 40:5695

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wong E, Fauconnier T, Bennett S, Valliant J, Nguyen T, Lau F, Lu LFL, Pollak A, Bell RA, Thornback JR (1997) Inorg Chem 36:5799

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wust F, Carlson KE, Katzenellenbogen JA, Spies H, Johannsen B (1998) Steroids 63:665

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Xue CB, Degrado WF (1995) J Org Chem 60:946

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhuang ZP, Mu M, Kung MP, Plössl K, Kung HF (1999) J Labelled Compd Rad 42:S351

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. Alberto .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

About this entry

Cite this entry

Alberto, R., Abram, U. (2011). 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds. In: Vértes, A., Nagy, S., Klencsár, Z., Lovas, R.G., Rösch, F. (eds) Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_43

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics