Advertisement

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

  • S. Mirzadeh
  • L. F. Mausner
  • M. A. Garland

Abstract

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by β emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Keywords

Neutron Flux Neutron Energy Neutron Capture Capture Cross Section Activation Cross Section 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Research at ORNL was supported by the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. Research at BNL was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC02-98CH10886 with Brookhaven Science Associates.

References

  1. Adelstein SJ, Kassis AI (1987) Nucl Med Biol 14:165Google Scholar
  2. Atkins HL, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC, Meinken GE, Strub RF, Cabahug CJ, Weber DA, Wong CT, Sacker DF, Madajewicz S, Park TI, Meek AG (1993) J Radiol 186:279Google Scholar
  3. Atkins HL, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC, Meinken GE, Cabahug CJ, D’Alessandro TD (1995) J Nucl Med 36:725Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin RM (1986) Appl Radiat Isot 37:817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bateman H (1910) Proc Cambridge Philos Soc 15:423Google Scholar
  6. Bizzell OM (1966) Isot Radiat Technol 4:25Google Scholar
  7. Bohr N (1936) Nature 137:344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyd RE (1982) Radiochim Acta 30:123Google Scholar
  9. Brihaye C, Dewez S, Guillaume M, Callahan AP, Rice DC, Knapp FF Jr (1989) Appl Radiat Isot 40:183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chakraborty S, Dasa T, Sarma HD, Venkatesh M, Banerjee S (2008) Nucl Med Biol 35:589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CSISRS (2003) Experimental nuclear reaction data file (EXFOR[CSISRS]). National Nuclear Data Center, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nndc/exfor/
  12. Dadachova E, Mirzadeh S, Lambrecht RM, Hetherington E, Knapp FF Jr (1994) J Anal Chem 66:4272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dadachova E, Mirzadeh S, Lambrecht RM (1995) J Phys Chem 99:10976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daghighian F, Barendswaard E, Welt S, Humm J, Scott A, Willingham MC, McGuffie E, Old LJ, Larson SM (1996) J Nucl Med 37:1052Google Scholar
  15. Dasgupta AK, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC (1991) Int J Radiat Appl Instrum Part A, Appl Radiat Isot 42:371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeNardo G, DeNardo S, Kukuis D, Diril H, Suny C, Meares C (1991) Int J Radiat Appl Instrum Part B, Nucl Med Biol 18:633Google Scholar
  17. Dvorakovaa Z, Henkelmanna R, Lin X, Turler A, Gerstenberg H (2007) Appl Radiat Isot 66:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ehrhardt GJ, Turpin TA, Razavi MS, Vanderheyden JL, Su FM, Fritzberg AR (1990) In: Nicolini M, Bandoli G, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium and rhenium in chemistry and nuclear medicine 3. Raven Press, New York, p 631Google Scholar
  19. ENSDF (2009) Evaluated nuclear structure data file. U.S. National Nuclear Data Center, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/ensdf/
  20. Evans RD (1955) The atomic nucleus. Krieger Publishing, MalabarGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans CC, Stevenson J (1956) British Patent 763865Google Scholar
  22. Evans CC, Stevenson J (1957) British Patent 765489Google Scholar
  23. Finn R (2003) In: Welch MJ, Redvanly CS (eds) Handbook of radiopharmaceuticals, radiochemistry and applications. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  24. Firestone RB, Shirley VS, Baglin CM, Chu SYF, Zipkin J (1996) Table of isotopes, 8th edn. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Green MA, Klippenstein DL, Tennison JR (1988) J Nucl Med 29:1549Google Scholar
  26. Hainfeld JF, Foley CJ, Srivastava SC, Mausner LF, Feng NI, Meinken GE, Steplewski Z (1990) Nucl Med Biol 17:287Google Scholar
  27. Hashimoto K, Matsuoka H, Uchida S (2003) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 255:575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hodgson PE (1967) Annu Rev Nucl Sci 17:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Horwitz EP, McAlister DR, Bond AH, Barrans RE, Williamson JM (2005) Appl Radiat Isot 63:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Howell RW, Narra VR, Sastry KSR, Rao DV (eds) (1992) In: AAPM symposium series, number 8. American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, pp 1192Google Scholar
  31. Hughes DJ (1957) Neutron cross sections. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Hupf HB (1976) In: Tubis M, Wolf A (eds) Radiopharmacy. Wiley, New York, p 225Google Scholar
  33. IAEA-TECDOC-1340 (2003) Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes. IAEAGoogle Scholar
  34. ITG Garching (2010) http://www/itg-garching.de
  35. JENDL (2003) Japanese evaluated nuclear data library version 3.3. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, http://wwwndc.jaea.go.jp/jendl/jendl.html
  36. Jeong JM, Chung JK (2003) Cancer Biother Radiopharm 18:707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kadina G, Tulskaya T, Gureev E, Brodskaya G, Gapurova O, Drosdovsky B (1990) In: Nicolini M, Bandoli G, Mazzi U (eds) Technetium and rhenium in chemistry and nuclear medicine 3. Raven Press, New York, p 635Google Scholar
  38. Kahn M, Kleinberg J (1977) Radiochemistry of iodine. Nuclear science series, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council NAS-NS-3062Google Scholar
  39. Kaltsas GA, Papadogias D, Makras P, Grossman AB (2005) Endocr-Relat Cancer 12:683Google Scholar
  40. Kamioki H, Mirzadeh S, Lambrecht RM, Knapp FF Jr, Dadachova E (1994) Radiochim Acta 65:39Google Scholar
  41. Kassis AI, Sastry KSR, Adelstein SJ (1987) Radiat Res 109:78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kelly MP, Lee ST, Lee FT, Smyth FE, Davis ID, Brechbiel MW, Scott AM (2009) Prostate 69:92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Knapp FF Jr, Callahan AP, Beets AL, Mirzadeh S, Hsieh BT (1994) Appl Radiat Isot 45:1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Knapp FF Jr, Beets AL, Guhlke S, Zamora PO, Bender H, Palmedo H, Biersack HJ (1997) Anticancer Res 17:1783Google Scholar
  45. Knapp FF, Mirzadeh S, Beets AL, Du M, Garland MA (2004) Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 31:S387Google Scholar
  46. Knapp FF, Mirzadeh S, Beets AL, Du M (2005) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 263:503Google Scholar
  47. Kwekkeboom DJ, Bakker WH, Kooij PP, Konijnenberg MW, Srinivasan A, Erion JL, Schmidt MA, Bugaj JL, de Jong M, Krenning EP (2001) Eur J Nucl Med 28:1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kwekkeboom DJ, Teunissen JJ, Bakker WH, Kooij PP, de Herder WW, Feelders RA, van Eijck CH, Esser JP, Kam BL, Krenning EP (2005) J Clin Oncol 23:2754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lagunas-Solar MC, Jungerman JA (1979) Int J Appl Radiat Isot 30:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lamarsh JR, Baratta AJ (2001) Introduction to nuclear engineering, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  51. Lambert B, de Klerk JM (2006) Nucl Med Commun 27:223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lebedev NA, Novgorodov AF, Misiak R, Brockmann J, Rösch F (2000) Appl Radiat Isot 53:421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lederer CM, Shirley VS (1978) Table of isotopes. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Ma D, Ketring AR, Ehrhardt GJ, Jia W (1996) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 206:119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mani RS, Majali AB (1966) Indian J Chem 4:391Google Scholar
  56. Martel AE, Smith RM (1974) Critical stability constants, vol 1, amino acids. Plenum Press, New York, pp 281–285Google Scholar
  57. Mausner LF (1999) McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science & technology, 9th edn. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Mausner LF, Mirzadeh S, Ward TE (1985) In: Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear data for basic and applied science, Santa Fe, New Mexico, pp 733–737Google Scholar
  59. Mausner LF, Mirzadeh S, Srivastava SC (1992) Int J Appl Radiat Isot 43:1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Medvedev DG, Mausner LF, Greene GA, Hanson AL (2008) Appl Radiat Isot 66:1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meredith RF, Partridge EE, Alvarez RD, Khazaeli MB, Plott G, Russell CD, Wheeler RH, Liu T, Grizzle WE, Schlom J, LoBuglio AF (1996) J Nucl Med 37:1491Google Scholar
  62. Mikolajczak R, Parus JL, Pawlak D, Zakrzewska E, Michalak W, Sasinowska I (2003) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 257:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mirzadeh S (1995) In: Knapp FF Jr (ed) Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL/TM-13107Google Scholar
  64. Mirzadeh S, Knapp FF Jr (1992) Radiochim Acta 57:193Google Scholar
  65. Mirzadeh S, Knapp FF Jr (1996) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 203:471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mirzadeh S, Walsh P (1998) Appl Radiat Isot 49:379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mirzadeh S, Mausner LF, Srivastava SC (1986) Int J Radiat Appl Instrum Part A, Appl Radiat Isot 37:29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mirzadeh S, Beets AL, Knapp FF (1996) J Nucl Med 37:728Google Scholar
  69. Mirzadeh S, Knapp FF Jr, Alexander CW, Mausner LF (1997) Appl Radiat Isot 48:441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mirzadeh S, Knapp FF Jr, Collins ED (1998) US Patent no. 5,729,821Google Scholar
  71. Mirzadeh S, Du M, Beets AL, Knapp FF Jr (2000) Ind Eng Chem Res 39:3169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mirzadeh S, Du M, Beets A, Knapp FF (2004) US Patent no. 6,716,353B1Google Scholar
  73. Mughabghab SF (1984) Neutron cross sections, vol 1, part B; Z = 61–100. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Mughabghab SF (2006) Atlas of neutron resonances. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  75. Mughabghab SF, Divadeenam M, Holden NE (1981) Neutron cross sections, vol 1, part A; Z = 1–60. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Oeksuez M, Pfannenberg C, Bares R (2009) J Nucl Med 50(Supplement 2):212Google Scholar
  77. Peppard DF, Manson GM et al (1957) J Inorg Nucl Chem 5:141Google Scholar
  78. Pillai MRA, Chakraborty S, Meera TD, Ramamoorthy V, Ramamoorthy N (2003) Appl Radiat Isot 59:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Polak P, Geradts J, Van der Vlist R, Lindner L (1986) Radiochim Acta 40:169Google Scholar
  80. Richards P (1966a) In: Radioactive pharmaceuticals. Symposium #6, Conf. 651111, US Atomic Energy Commission, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  81. Richards P (1966b) In: Radioactive radiopharmaceuticals. Proc. Conf.-651111, National Bureau of Standards, Springfield, pp 323–334Google Scholar
  82. Richards P (1966c) In: Radioactive radiopharmaceuticals. Proc. Conf.-651111, National Bureau of Standards, Springfield, pp 155–163Google Scholar
  83. Roberts JC, Figard SD, Mercer-Smith JA, Svitra ZV, Anderson WL, Lavallee DK (1987) J Immunol Meth 105:153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roberts JC, Newmyer SL, Mercer-Smith JA, Schreyer SA, Lavallee DK (1989) Int J Radiat Appl Instrum Part A, Appl Radiat Isot 40:775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rubinson W (1949) J Chem Phys 17:542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rutherford E, Chadwick J, Ellis CD (1930) Radiations from radioactive substances. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. Siiskonen T, Huikari J, Haavisto T, Bergman J, Heselius S-J, Lill J-O, Lonnroth T, Perajarvi K, Vartti V-P (2009) Nucl Instrum Meth B 267:3500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Srivastava SC, Meinken GE, Richards P (1985) US Patent no. 4,533,541Google Scholar
  89. Srivastava SC, Mausner LF, Mease RC, Meinken GE, Joshi V, Kolsky K, Sweet M, Steplewski Z (1995) Int J Pharmacogn 33(suppl):92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Srivastava SC, Atkins HL, Krishnamurthy GT, Zanzi I, Silberstein EB, Meinken GE, Mausner LF, Swailem F, D’Alessandro T, Cabahug CJ, Lau T, Park T, Madajewicz S (1998) Clin Cancer Res 4:61Google Scholar
  91. Stein R, Govindan SV, Chen S, Reed L, Richel H, Griffiths GL, Hansen HJ, Goldenberg DM (2001) J Nucl Med 42:967Google Scholar
  92. Stoughton RW, Halperin J (1959) Nucl Sci Eng 6:100Google Scholar
  93. Subramanian G (1976) In: Tubis M, Wolf W (eds) Radiopharmacy. Wiley, New York, p 556Google Scholar
  94. Szilard L, Chalmers TA (1934) Nature 134:462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tucker WD, Greene MW, Weiss AJ, Murrenhoff AP (1958) T Am Nucl Soc 1:160Google Scholar
  96. Weber DA, Eckerman KF, Dillman LT, Ryman JC (1989) MIRD: radionuclide data and decay schemes. Society of Nuclear Medicine, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Westcott CH (1955) J Nucl Energy 2:59Google Scholar
  98. Winsche WE, Stang LG, Tucker R (1951) Nucleonics 8:14Google Scholar
  99. Zhernosekov KP, Perego RC, Dvorakova Z, Henkelmann R, Turler A (2008) Appl Radiat Isot 66:1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Brookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA

Personalised recommendations