Activation Analysis

  • R. Zeisler
  • N. Vajda
  • G. Kennedy
  • G. Lamaze
  • G. L. Molnár
Reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter presents the basic principles of activation analysis and details its different types. Emphasis is given to instrumental neutron activation analysis and radiochemical separations for the determination of trace and ultra-trace elements. Location sensitive analysis is also included.

Keywords

Mercury Lithium Cadmium Tungsten Molybdenum 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Donna O’Kelly, NIST Analytical Chemistry Division, and David F. R. Mildner, NIST Center for Neutron Research, for their critical reading of the manuscript and valuable suggestions.

References

  1. Abugassa I, Sarmani SB, Samat SB (1999) Appl Radiat Isot 50:989Google Scholar
  2. Alamin MB, Bejey AM, Kucera J, Mizera J (2006) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 270:143Google Scholar
  3. Alfassi ZB (ed) (1994a) Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  4. Alfassi ZB (1994b) Determination of trace elements. Balaban Publication, RehovotGoogle Scholar
  5. Alfassi ZB (2001) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Non-destructive elemental analysis, Chapter 1. Blackwell Sciences, Oxford, pp 4–57Google Scholar
  6. Amphlett CB (1964) Inorganic ion exchangers. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson J, Osborn SB, Tomlinson RWS, Newton D, Rundo J, Salmon L (1964) Lancet II:1201Google Scholar
  8. Armer HA, Shawky S (2002) Radiochim Acta 90:350Google Scholar
  9. Aumann DC, Güner D (1999) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 242:641Google Scholar
  10. Balla M, Keömley G, Molnár Zs (1998) In: Vértes A, Nagy S, Süvegh K (eds) Nuclear methods in mineralogy and geology, Chapter 2. Plenum Press, New York, pp 115–143Google Scholar
  11. Becker DA (1987) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 111:393Google Scholar
  12. Becker DA (1993) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 168:169Google Scholar
  13. Becker DA, Anderson DL, Lindstrom RM, Greenberg RR, Garrity KM, Mackey EA (1994) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 179:149Google Scholar
  14. Bedregal PS, Montoya EH (2002) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 254:363Google Scholar
  15. Biersack JP, Fink D (1973) Nucl Instrum Meth 108:397Google Scholar
  16. Biso JN, Cohen IM, Resnizki SM (1983) Radiochem Radioa Lett 58:175Google Scholar
  17. Blaauw M (1996) Nucl Sci Eng 124:431Google Scholar
  18. Blaauw M, Gelsema SJ (1999) Nucl Instrum Meth A 422:417Google Scholar
  19. Blaauw M, Osorio Fernandez V, Van Espen P, Bernasconi G, Capote Noy R, Manh Dung H, Molla NI (1997) Nucl Instrum Meth A 387:416Google Scholar
  20. Blackman MJ, Bishop RL (2007) Archaeometry 49:321Google Scholar
  21. Blanchard LJ, Robertson JD (1997) Analyst 122:1261Google Scholar
  22. Bode P, Overwater RMW, de Goeij JJM (1997) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 216:5Google Scholar
  23. Borsaru M, Biggs M, Nichols W, Bos F (2001) Appl Radiat Isot 54:335Google Scholar
  24. Brätter P, Gatschke W, Gawlik D, Klatt S (1977) Kerntechnik 19:225Google Scholar
  25. Brown ME (ed) (1961) Proceedings of the international conference modern trends in activation analysis. Texas A&M College, College StationGoogle Scholar
  26. Byrne AR (1986) J Environm Radioactivity 4:133Google Scholar
  27. Byrne AR, Benedik L (1999) Czechoslovak J Phys 49:265Google Scholar
  28. Byrne AR, Vakselj A (1974) Croat Chem Acta 46:225Google Scholar
  29. Caletka R, Faix WG, Krivan VJ (1982) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 72:109Google Scholar
  30. Caletka R, Hausbeck R, Krivan VJ (1988) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 120:305Google Scholar
  31. CCQM (2008) Key Comparison Data Base (KCDB). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sèvres, France. Published on the internet: http://kcdb.bipm.org/default.asp
  32. Chai CF (1988) Isotopenpraxis 24:257Google Scholar
  33. Chai CF, Ma SL, Mao XY, Liao KN, Liu WC (1987) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 114:281Google Scholar
  34. Chao JH, Tseng CL (1996) Nucl Instuments Methods Phys Res A 272:275Google Scholar
  35. Chen QJ, Dahlgaard H, Hansen HJM, Aarkrog A (1990) Anal Chim Acta 228:163Google Scholar
  36. Chen QJ, Dahlgaard H, Nielsen SP, Aarkrog A (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:527Google Scholar
  37. Chilian C, St-Pierre J, Kennedy G (2008) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 278:745Google Scholar
  38. Chung C (1990) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Activation analysis, Chapter 6, vol 2. CRP Press, Boca Raton, pp 299–320Google Scholar
  39. Clayton CG, Wormald MR (1983) Int J Appl Radiat Isot 34:3Google Scholar
  40. Clearfield A (1982) Inorganic ion exchanger materials. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  41. Csikai J (1987) CRC handbook of fast neutron generators, vol 1 and 2. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  42. Czauderna M (1985) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 89:13Google Scholar
  43. Czauderna M (1996) Appl Radiat Isot 47:735Google Scholar
  44. Damsgaard E, Ostergaard K, Heydorn K (1973) Talanta 20:1Google Scholar
  45. Dang HS, Jaiswal DD, Pullat VR, Mishra UC (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 243:513Google Scholar
  46. Dang HS, Jaiswal DD, Nair S (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:95Google Scholar
  47. de Bruin M (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 234(1–2):5Google Scholar
  48. de Bruin M, Blaauw M (1992) Analyst 117:431Google Scholar
  49. De Corte F (1987) The k0-standardization method, a move to the optimization of neutron activation analysis. Rijksuniversiteit, GentGoogle Scholar
  50. De Corte F, Simonits A (1989) J Radioanal Nucl Chem Art 133:43Google Scholar
  51. De Corte F, Simonits A (2003) At Data Nucl Data Tables 85:47Google Scholar
  52. De Corte F, Simonits A, De Wispelaere A, Hoste J (1987) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 113:145Google Scholar
  53. De Corte F, Simonits A, De Wispelaere A (1989a) J Radioanal Nucl Chem Art 133:131Google Scholar
  54. De Corte F, Simonits A, De Wispelaere A, Elek A (1989b) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 133:3Google Scholar
  55. De Corte F, Bellemans F, De Neve P, Simonits A (1994) J Radioanal Nucl Chem Art 179:93Google Scholar
  56. de Goeij JJM (1999) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 245:5Google Scholar
  57. Debertin K, Helmer RG (1988) Gamma- and X-ray spectrometry with semiconductor detectors. North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  58. Dermelj M, Byrne AR (1997) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 216:13Google Scholar
  59. Dubczinskij R (1996) Zs Anal Him 51(12):1328, in RussianGoogle Scholar
  60. Egger KP, Krivan V (1986) Fresen J Anal Chem 323:827Google Scholar
  61. Egger KP, Krivan V (1988) Fresen J Anal Chem 331:394Google Scholar
  62. Ellis KJ (1990) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Activation analysis, Chapter 10, vol 2. CRP Press, Boca Raton, pp 407–426Google Scholar
  63. Ellis KJ (2000) Physiol Rev 80:649Google Scholar
  64. Ellis KJ, Shypailo RJ, Hergenroeder AC, Perez MD, Abrams SA (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:461Google Scholar
  65. Fardy JJ (1990) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Activation analysis, Chapter 5, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 62–96Google Scholar
  66. Farmer OT, Barinaga CJ, Koppenaal DW (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 234:153Google Scholar
  67. Fink D (1996) In: Hahn-Meitner Inst Rep HMI-B 539, Berlin, pp 307–311Google Scholar
  68. Fischer CO, Kelch J, Laurenze C, Leuthe RW, Slusallek K (1987) Kerntechnik 51:9Google Scholar
  69. Fleming RF (1982) Int J Appl Radiat Isot 33:1263Google Scholar
  70. Fleming RF, Lindstrom RM (1987) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 188:35Google Scholar
  71. Foti S, Delucchi E, Akamian V (1972) Anal Chim Acta 60:261Google Scholar
  72. Frechou C, Calmet D, Bouisset P, Piccot D, Gaudry A, Yiou F, Raisbeck G (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:133Google Scholar
  73. Garuti G, Meloni S, Oddone M (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 245(1):17Google Scholar
  74. Germain P, Pinte G (1990) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 138:49Google Scholar
  75. Germani MS, Gokmen I, Sigleo AC, Kowalczyk GS, Olmez I, Small AM, Anderson DL, Failey MP, Gulovali MC, Choquette CE, Lepel EA, Gordon GE, Zoller WH (1980) Anal Chem 52:240Google Scholar
  76. Gharib AG, Fatemi K, Madadi M, Rafiee H, Darabi-zadeh Sh (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:551Google Scholar
  77. Gill KP, Zaidi JH, Ahmed S (2003) Radiochim Acta 91:547Google Scholar
  78. Gilmore G (2008) Practical gamma-ray spectrometry, 2nd edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  79. Girardi F, Sabbioni E (1968) Nucl Chem 1:169Google Scholar
  80. Glover SE, Filby RH, Clark SB (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 234:65Google Scholar
  81. Glover SE, Qu H, LaMont SP, Grimm CA, Filby RH (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 248:29Google Scholar
  82. Goerner W, Berger A, Ecker KH, Haase O, Hedrich M, Segebade C, Weidemann G, Wermann G (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 248:45Google Scholar
  83. Goldbrunner T, Hentig R, Angloher F, Feilitzsch F (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 234:43Google Scholar
  84. Goncalves C, Favaro DIT, De Oliveira MD, Boulet R, Vasconcellos MBA, Saiki M (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 235:267Google Scholar
  85. Goncalves C, Favaro DIT, Melfi AJ, De Oliveira MD, Vasconcellos MBA, Fostier AH, Guimaraes JRD, Boulet R, Forti MC (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 243:789Google Scholar
  86. Grass F, Bichler M, Dorner J, Holzner H, Ritschel A, Ramadan A, Westphal GP, Grass F, Lemmel H, Westphal GP, Gwozdz R (2001) J Trace Microprobe T 19:211Google Scholar
  87. Grass F, Lemmel H, Westphal GP (1994) Biol Trace Elem Res 43:33.Google Scholar
  88. Greenberg RR, Fleming RF, Zeisler R (1984) Environ Int 10:129Google Scholar
  89. Greenberg RR, Lindstrom RM, Simons DS (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Ch 245:57Google Scholar
  90. Grimanis AP, Kanias GD (1982) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 72:587Google Scholar
  91. Guinn VP (1999) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:23Google Scholar
  92. Harms J (1967) Nucl Instrum Meth 53:192Google Scholar
  93. Heller-Zeisler SF, Ondov JM, Zeisler R (1999) Biol Trace Elem Res 71–72:195Google Scholar
  94. Heller-Zeisler SF, Borgoul PV, Moore RR, Smoliar M, Suarez E, Ondov JM (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:93Google Scholar
  95. Hevesy G, Levi H (1936) Math Fys Medd 14:34Google Scholar
  96. Heydorn K (1999) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:7Google Scholar
  97. Hillard HT (1987) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 113:125Google Scholar
  98. Hogdahl OT (1965) Proceedings Symposium Radiochemical Methods of Analysis, IAEA, Vienna, pp 23–40Google Scholar
  99. Höllriegl V, Oeh U, Röhmuss M, Gerstmann U, Roth P (2005) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 266:441Google Scholar
  100. Hogdahl OT (1965) Proceedings Symposium Radiochemical Methods of Analysis, IAEA, Vienna, pp 23–40Google Scholar
  101. Hou XL, Dahlgaard H, Rietz B, Jacobsen U, Nielsen SP (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:87Google Scholar
  102. Hou XL, Dahlgaard H, Nielsen SP, Kucera J (2002) J Environm Radioactivity 61:331Google Scholar
  103. Hou XL, Fogh CL, Kucera J, Andersson KG, Dahlgaard H, Nielsen SP (2003) Sci Total Environm 308:97Google Scholar
  104. IAEA (1987) Handbook of nuclear activation data, Technical report 273. International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  105. Ismail SS, Brezovits K, Klikovich W (2001) Instrum Sci Technol 29:255Google Scholar
  106. Itawi RK, Turrel ZR (1973) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 106:81Google Scholar
  107. Iyengar V (1981) J Pathol 134:173Google Scholar
  108. Jacimovic R, Horvat M (2004) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 259:385Google Scholar
  109. Jacimovic R, Makreski P, Stribilj V, Stafilov T (2008) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 278(3):795Google Scholar
  110. James WD, Zeisler R (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 248:233Google Scholar
  111. Jenkins R, Gould RW, Gedcke D (1981) Quantitative X-ray spectrometry. Marcel Decker, New York, pp 208–287Google Scholar
  112. Jovanovic S, De Corte F, Simonits A, Moens L, Vikotic P, Hoste J (1987) J Radioan Nucl Ch Ar 113:177Google Scholar
  113. Kabai É, Vajda N (2002) In: Proceedings of the 14th radiochemical conference. Czech Technical University, Marianske Lazne, p 121Google Scholar
  114. Kalmykov StN, Aliev RA, Sapozhnikov DYu, Sapozhnikov YuA, Afinogenov AM (2004) Appl Rad Isotopes 60:595Google Scholar
  115. KAYZERO/SOLCOI (1996) PC software package (DSM Research, POB 18, NL-6160 MD Geleen, The Netherlands)Google Scholar
  116. Kim NB, Raulerson MR, James WD (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 234:71Google Scholar
  117. Knoll GF (2000) Radiation detection and measurement, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. Kolotov VP, Dogadkin NN, Tsapizsnikov BA, Karandashev VK, Sadikov II, Saveljev BV (1996) Zh Anal Himii 51(12):1315, in RussianGoogle Scholar
  119. Kosta L (1969) Talanta 16:1297Google Scholar
  120. Koster-Ammerlaan MJJ, Bacchi MA, Bode P, De Nadai Fernandes EA (2008) Appl Radiat Isot 66:1964Google Scholar
  121. Krishnan S (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:209Google Scholar
  122. Kucera J (2007) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 273:273Google Scholar
  123. Kucera J, Zeisler R (2005) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 263:811Google Scholar
  124. Kucera J, Randa Z, Soukal L (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:109Google Scholar
  125. Kucera J, Iyengar GV, Randa Z, Parr RM (2004) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 259:505Google Scholar
  126. Kushelevsky AP (1990) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Activation analysis, Chapter 4, vol 2. CRP Press, Boca Raton, pp 219–237Google Scholar
  127. Landsberger S, Peshev S (1996) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 202:201Google Scholar
  128. Lin X, Henkelmann R (2002) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 251:197Google Scholar
  129. Lindstrom RM (1994) Biol Trace Elem Res 43–44:597Google Scholar
  130. Lindstrom RM (2005) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 263:787Google Scholar
  131. Lindstrom RM, Harrison SH, Harris JM (1978) J Appl Phys 49:5903Google Scholar
  132. Lindstrom RM, Lindstrom DJ, Slaback LA, Langland JK (1990) Nucl Instrum Meth A 299:425Google Scholar
  133. Lindstrom RM, Zeisler R, Greenberg RR (2007) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 271:311Google Scholar
  134. Lucanikova M, Kucera J, Sebesta F, John J (2006) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 269:463Google Scholar
  135. Ma R, Stamatelatos IE, Yasumura S (2000) Ann NY Acad Sci 904:148Google Scholar
  136. Mackey EA, Gordon GE, Lindstrom RM, Anderson DL (1991) Anal Chem 63:288Google Scholar
  137. Mackey EA, Anderson DL, Chen-Mayer H, Downing RG, Greenberg RR, Lamaze GP, Lindstrom RM, Mildner DFR, Paul RL (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 203:413Google Scholar
  138. Makreski P, Jacimovic R, Stribilj V, Stafilov T, Jovanovski G (2008) Radiochim Acta 96:855Google Scholar
  139. Minowa H, Ebihara M (2003) Anal Chim Acta 498:25Google Scholar
  140. Minowa H, Takeada M, Ebihara M (2007) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 272:321Google Scholar
  141. Mizera J, Randa Z, Kucera J (2008) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 278(3):599Google Scholar
  142. Moens L, De Donder J, Lin X, De Corte F, De Wispelaere A, Simonits A, Hoste J (1981) Nucl Instrum Meth 187:451Google Scholar
  143. Moens L, De Corte F, De Wispelaere A, Hoste J, Simonits A, Elek A, Szabo E (1984) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 82:385Google Scholar
  144. Molnár GL (ed) (2003) Handbook of prompt gamma activation analysis with neutron beams. Kluwer Acadamic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  145. Molnár GL, Lindstrom RM (1998) In: Vértes A, Nagy S, Süvegh K (eds) Nuclear methods in mineralogy and geology, Chapter 3. Plenum Press, New York, pp 145–164Google Scholar
  146. Morgan WD (2000) Ann NY Acad Sci 904:128Google Scholar
  147. Mughabghab SF (1984) Neutron cross sections, vol 1, part B. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  148. Mughabghab SF, Divadeenam M, Holden NE (1981) Neutron cross sections, vol 1, part A. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  149. Nadkarni RA, Morrison GH (1977) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 38:435Google Scholar
  150. Norman BR, Becker DA (1999) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 245:91Google Scholar
  151. OECD (1994) Table of simple integral neutron cross section data from JEF-2.2, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.2, BROND-2 and CENDL-2, JEF Report 14. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, ParisGoogle Scholar
  152. Ohde S (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 237:51Google Scholar
  153. Olariu A, Constantinescu M, Constantinescu O, Badica T, Popescu IV, Besliu C, Leahu D (1999) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 240:261Google Scholar
  154. Ondov JM, Dodd JA, Tuncel G (1990) Aerosol Sci Technol 13:249Google Scholar
  155. Osterc A, Stibilj V (2008) J Environm Radioactivity 99:757Google Scholar
  156. Oura Y, Motohashi T, Ebihara M (2007) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 271(2):305Google Scholar
  157. Ozaki H, Ebihara M (2007) Anal Chim Acta 583:384Google Scholar
  158. Park KS, Kim NB, Kim YS, Lee KY, Choi HW, Yoon YY (1988) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 123:585Google Scholar
  159. Parr RM (1999) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:17Google Scholar
  160. Parry SJ, Asif M, Sinclair IW (1988) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 123:593Google Scholar
  161. Parry SJ, Bennett BA, Benzing R, Lally AE, Birch CP, Fulker MJ (1995) Sci Total Environ 173(174):351Google Scholar
  162. Parry SJ, Glover SE, Qu H, LaMont SP, Grimm CA, Filby RH (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 248(1):137Google Scholar
  163. Paul RL (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 234:55Google Scholar
  164. Paul RL (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 245:11Google Scholar
  165. Paul RL (2008) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 276:243Google Scholar
  166. Paul RL, Simons DS, Guthrie WF, Lu J (2003) Anal Chem 75:4028Google Scholar
  167. Pietra R, Sabbioni E, Gallorini M, Orvini E (1986) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 102:69Google Scholar
  168. Pomme S, Alzetta JP, Uyttenhove J, Denecke B, Arana G, Robouch P (1999) Nucl Instrum Meth Phys Res A 422:388Google Scholar
  169. Randa Z, Kucera J, Soukal L (2003) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 257:275Google Scholar
  170. Repinc U, Benedik L (2005) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 264:77Google Scholar
  171. Repinc U, Benedik L, Stibilj V (2005) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 264:39Google Scholar
  172. Rietz B, Heydorn K (1993) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 174:49Google Scholar
  173. Rosman KJR, Taylor PDP (1998) J Phys Chem Ref Data 27:1275–1287Google Scholar
  174. Rossbach M, Blaauw M, Bacchi MA, Lin X (2007) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 274:657Google Scholar
  175. Rouchaud JC, Fedoroff M, Revel GJ (1977) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 38:185Google Scholar
  176. Rouchaud JC, Fedoroff M, Revel G (1980) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 55:283Google Scholar
  177. Samczynski Z, Dybczynski R (2002) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 254:335Google Scholar
  178. Samsahl K (1966) Nukleonik 8:252Google Scholar
  179. Schmid W, Krivan V (1986) Anal Chem 58:1468Google Scholar
  180. Schuhmacher J, Maier-borst W, Hauser H (1977) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 37:503Google Scholar
  181. Shani G (1990) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Activation analysis, Chapter 5, vol 2. CRP Press, Boca Raton, pp 239–297Google Scholar
  182. Shoop DM, Blotzky AJ, Rack EP (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 236(1–2):103Google Scholar
  183. Simonits A, De Corte F, Hoste J (1975) J Radioanal Chem 24:31Google Scholar
  184. Simonits A, Moens L, De Corte F, De Wispelaere A, Elek A, Hoste J (1980) J Radioanal Chem 60:461Google Scholar
  185. Slejkovec Z, Falnoga I, Goessler W, van Elteren JT, Raml R, Podgornik H, Cernelc P (2008) Anal Chim Acta 607:83Google Scholar
  186. St-Pierre J, Kennedy G (1998) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 234:51–54Google Scholar
  187. St-Pierre J, Kennedy G (2006) Nucl Instrum Meth A 564:669Google Scholar
  188. St-Pierre J, Kennedy G (2007) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 271:283Google Scholar
  189. Strijckmans K (1994) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Chemical analysis by nuclear methods, Chapter 10. Wiley, Chichester, pp 215–252Google Scholar
  190. Studier MH (1962) J Inorg Nucl Chem 24:755Google Scholar
  191. Suzuki N (1990) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Activation analysis, Chapter 9, vol 1. CRP Press, Boca Raton, pp 146–164Google Scholar
  192. Szidat S, Schmidt A, Handl J, Jakob D, Michel R, Synal HA, Suter M (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:45Google Scholar
  193. Takeda M, Minowa H, Ebihara M (2007) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 272:363Google Scholar
  194. Theimer KH, Krivan V (1990) Anal Chem 62:2722Google Scholar
  195. Tian W, Ni B, Wang P, Nie H, Cao L, Zhang Y (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:25Google Scholar
  196. Upp DL, Keyser RM, Gedcke DA, Twomey TR, Bingham RD (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 248:377Google Scholar
  197. Van Sluijs R, Bossus DAW, Konings J, De Corte F, De Wispelaere A, Simonits A (1997) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 215:283Google Scholar
  198. Van Sluijs R, Bossus D, Blaauw M, Kennedy G, De Wispelaere A, Van Lierde S, De Corte F (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:675Google Scholar
  199. Vermaercke P, Robouch P, Eguskiza M, De Corte F, Kennedy G, Smodis B, Jacimovic R, Yonezawa C, Matsue H, Lin X, Blaauw M, Kucera J (2006) Nucl Instrum Meth A564:675Google Scholar
  200. VIM (2007) International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  201. Westcott CH (1955) J Nucl Energy 2:59Google Scholar
  202. Westphal GP (1981) J Radioanal Chem 61:111Google Scholar
  203. Westphal GP, Lemmel H (2008) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 276:601Google Scholar
  204. Yonezawa C (2001) In: Alfassi ZB (ed) Non-destructive elemental analysis, Chapter 2. Blackwell Sciences, Oxford, pp 58–114Google Scholar
  205. Zaidi JH, Arif M, Fatima I, Ahmed S, Qureshi IH (1999a) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 241:123Google Scholar
  206. Zaidi JH, Waheed S, Ahmed S (1999b) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 242:259Google Scholar
  207. Zaidi JH, Arif M, Fatima I, Qureshi IH (2001) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 253:459Google Scholar
  208. Zaidi JH, Fatima I, Arif M (2002) Radiochim Acta 90:889Google Scholar
  209. Zeisler R (1986) J Res Natl Inst Stan 91:75Google Scholar
  210. Zeisler R (2000) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 244:507Google Scholar
  211. Zeisler R, Greenberg RR (1982) J Radioanal Chem 75:27Google Scholar
  212. Zeisler R, Guinn VP (1990) Nuclear analytical methods in the life sciences. The Humana, CliftonGoogle Scholar
  213. Zeisler R, Young I (1987) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 113:97Google Scholar
  214. Zeisler R, Lindstrom RM, Greenberg RR (2005) J Radioanal Nucl Chem 263:315Google Scholar
  215. Ziegler JF (1977) The stopping and ranges of ions in matter. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  216. Ziegler JF, Cole GW, Baglin JEE (1972) J Appl Phys 43:3809Google Scholar
  217. Ziegler JF, Ziegler MD, Biersack JP (2008) SRIM – the stopping and range of ions in matter, LuLu Press. The software package version SRIM-2008.04 is available from www.SRIM.org

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Zeisler
    • 1
  • N. Vajda
    • 2
  • G. Kennedy
    • 3
  • G. Lamaze
    • 1
  • G. L. Molnár
    • 4
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.RadAnal LtdBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Nuclear Engineering Institute, Ecole Polytechnique de MontrealMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry, CRC HASBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations